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81. The Genesis of Israel and Egypt by Emmett Sweeney [SIS C&C Review $]
... , Mitcham, Newgrosh, Robinson, Porter, Rees, Roth, Clapham and Reade have all made written contributions to the SIS debate. Liesching [10 pointed out that many consider Abraham to be legendary character. There is evidence that the Abraham material was added to the body of Jewish legends we call the Bible only after the return from the Babylonian exile. Rohl [11 disliked Sweeney's suggestion that since all Pharaohs used many different titles, Rohl/James were wrong, when showing that Ramesses II material was reused by Libyans at Tanis, to say this proves Ramesses II came before the Libyans. Rohl pointed out that when a king used a nomen of a previous king, they always used other epithets to distinguish themselves from earlier kings. There was no evidence for another king with exactly the same name as Ramesses II. Mitcham [12 complained that Sweeney seemed to be one of the few individuals who continue to support Velikovsky's Chaldeans= Hittites and Dynasty 19= Dynasty 26 equations, both of which are 'impossible'. In a further response, Mitcham [ ...
82. Monitor [SIS C&C Workshop $]
... at the placement of Exodus suggested by Velikovsky, i.e., before the Hyksos invasion of Egypt at the end of the 13th Dynasty. Given this placement, this Sheshai can very well have been king of Hebron and king in Egypt at the time of the Conquest or shortly thereafter. The tradition would then belong to a genuine corpus of Israelite Exodus/Conquest traditions. In Numbers 13:22 there is another reference to this Sheshai, and in relation to the famous mention of the foundation of Hebron 7 years before Zoan (Tanis). Kempinski believes that the mention of Zoan at this point clearly connects the passage in Numbers to the Hyksos, as he equates the biblical Sheshai with the ancient Hyksos king Sheshi. Very Ancient Peru source: Houston Chronicle 9.10.89 A remarkable flowering of civilisation has been recently confirmed for ancient Peru, roughly 5000 to 3500 years ago. Excavations are revealing 'stunning evidence' of 'monumental architecture' which reveal 'complex societies and planned developments'. These invite comparison with ancient Egypt and Mesopotamia even though the technical achievements are not quite of ...
83. Letters [SIS C&C Workshop $]
... as far as to say that Tony has misled the reader by the concocting of evidence for his arguments. Not only does he use a very corrupted version of Manetho which has been added to by a number of classical writers (viz. Polyaenus of Athens), but, even then, he extracts information from it which just isn't there. When the author of the Book of Sothis wishes to denote the rise of a new (foreign) dynasty he makes it quite explicit: "Next in the succession were 4 kings of Tanis, who ruled Egypt in the Seventeenth Dynasty for 254 years, according to the following computation. (Waddell, p. 239)" This statement is then followed by the Hyksos rulers. I could go on and on about a number of other appalling examples of Tony Rees' blatant manipulation of evidence, but I am sure that the pages of Workshop are worthy of better things. This sort of material gives chronological revisionism a bad name! David Rohl, Redhill, Surrey Catastrophes- ancient or modern? Dear Sir, ...
84. Letters [SIS C&C Workshop $]
... ) in the Nile Delta "where the children of Israel were held in bondage before the Exodus". The area mentioned is in the Eastern Delta, and on the remains of pillars found is the name of Ramses II. Dr. Egbrecht (I cannot be sure of the spelling) spoke and he said: "I have found many sun-baked bricks containing straw, which were probably made by the Israelites before the Exodus". Dr. Velikovsky says( Ramses II and His Time, p.209): "The ruins of Tanis are spread on a vast field in the eastern part of the Delta." I assume this is where the new excavations are taking place. No evidence was found (the bricks are no evidence- they are still being made this way today!) to connect this site with the Israelites, or to connect them with Ramses II. It seems to me that Rameses as mentioned in Exodus 1:11 is the name of a place, and later a city, and has no connection with the name of a pharaoh ...
85. Ancient History Revisions: the Last 25 years - a Perspective [SIS C&C Review $]
... that we must believe that the Prst were the Philistines of Biblical fame. Velikovsky also showed how a much-ignored 'difficult' Egyptian text on the Maunier stele can be read as recording Alexander's visit to the Siwa Oasis, where he was confirmed as an Egyptian god. Archaeological 'proof' of Velikovsky's placement of Psusennes I of Dynasty XXI in the Persian era was provided by Montet, when he discovered foundation deposits of both Osorkon II of Dynasty XXII and Nectanebo I of Dynasty XXX under the corners of the walls of the Temple of Psusennes at Tanis. Ramses II and his Time included a study of the war of Ramesses II against the Hittites. Velikovsky showed in much detail how the Egyptian records of Ramesses II's exploits, including the Poem of Pentaur, closely match the exploits of an Egyptian king as described in the Old Testament, where he was given the name 'Necho'. No shred of evidence for any of the exploits of the Biblical 'Necho' has been found in Egyptian records which can be attributed to either of the pharaohs that Egyptologists have chosen to call Necho ...
86. Society News [SIS C&C Review $]
... their dynasty, and accepting Dodson's argument about coffin styles indicating a continuation of the 21st Dynasty into the early 22nd Dynasty, Bob now made the bold proposal that the 'early' 22nd Dynasty actually came in the middle of the dynasty (which he illustrated satisfactorily with his paper strips) so that Osorkon II was contemporary with the end of the 20th Dynasty and part of the 21st. Bob suggested that Osorkon II was actually the power broker of that period, with Ramesses XI a nominal head of state and Psusennes I an ally at Tanis. Obviously there is much detail to work out and problems to address. Among these are the established use of stelae which seem to keep Shoshenq I early, confirming the biblical link of Shishak with Shoshenq. The Pasenhor Stela has been of great importance for obtaining a sequence of rulers for the 22nd Dynasty but it is entirely probable that this long genealogy is psuedo-historical in the manner of the concocted genealogies of the Memphis priests from a slightly later time. Indeed, the whole Third Intermediate Period shows a confusion of kings and priests ...
87. Egyptian Monumental Evidence [SIS C&C Workshop $]
... the reign of Sethos II. Hence there might theoretically be an overlap between dynasties, but only of short duration of perhaps no more than 12 years. The reign lengths of most of the 19th dyn rulers are well known, which allows us to estimate a probable theoretical minimum for the dynasty of perhaps 100 years. The Third Intermediate Period- The Transition from Dynasty 20 to the High Priests of Amun at Thebes C.A.H. Vol 2, part 2, p. 644 "...While the kings of the Twenty-first Dynasty ruled from Tanis, generations of High Priests of Amun, descendents of Herihor, were in power at Thebes. In so far as each high priest succeeded either his father or his brother in the office, the seven high priests form a dynasty. Piankh, son of Herihor... was followed by his son Pinudjem [I...He, in turn, was succeeded by his two sons Masahert and Menkheperre, apparently in that order. Two sons of Menkheperre became high priests in due course, namely Nesbenenbded, followed by his brother ...
88. Recent Developments in Near Eastern Archaeology [SIS C&C Review $]
... ISIS has produced Vol. 8 (1999-2000) of its Journal of the Ancient Chronology Forum after a gap of four years since Vol. 7. About half of the new issue is taken up by 'The New Chronology Debate' with responses to criticisms of the New Chronology, some already published elsewhere and some published for the first time in this issue. Rohl has responded to Brissaud's rude attack (see C&CR 1997:2, p. 38) in a similarly outrageous manner as he refutes Brissaud's convoluted theories on the Tanis tombs. The second half of the journal contains articles on Iron Age Palestine and the chronology of Assyria. I reported in C&CR 1998:2, p. 36 on a seal impression of King Ahaz which appeared on the antiquities market. Now another has turned up, this time of his son, King Hezekiah (Biblical Archaeology Review, March 1999, pp. 42-5, 60). The seal showed a two-winged beetle and the words 'belonging to Hezekiah, (son of) Ahaz, king of Judah' ...
89. Some Additional Evidence from the Period from the Exodus to the End of the Eighteenth Dynasty [SIS C&C Review $]
... for excavation. The identification of Avaris and el-Arish was offered by me as a crucial test for my equation of the Hyksos (Amu in Egyptian) and the Amalekites, one of the basic contentions of Ages in Chaos: generally, Avaris is looked for in the eastern part of the Delta. "The reader will be astonished to learn that a historical city was 'journeyed' by the Egyptologists all the length of the eastern side of the Delta, from Pelusium to Heliopolis, passing through Tell el-Her, el-Qantara, San el-Hagar (Tanis), Tell el-Yahudiyeh," wrote Montet in Le Frame d'Avaris. The site as identified in Ages in Chaos is quite a distance north-east from the Delta: el-Arish is at the wâdi of the same name, known in the Old Testament as Nakhal Mizraim, "Stream of Egypt", the historical frontier between Egypt and Palestine. Despite the many efforts made to have el-Arish surveyed and then excavated- both when the site was under the Egyptian authorities and since it was occupied by the Israelis following the "Six-Day War" ...
90. Letters [SIS C&C Workshop $]
... from his ancestors. Thus the closest pertinent example to this discussion is the similarity between the names of Ramesses II (later years) and Ramesses III who both use the prenomen User-Maat-Ra and nomen Ra-mes-su netjer-heqa-On. Egyptologists can however distinguish between the two kings quite easily because, in his prenomen, Ramesses II used the epithet setep-en-Ra whereas Ramesses III employed the quite distinct meri-Amun. There is no evidence for another king with exactly the same royal names as Ramesses II i.e. the names which I used in my arguments regarding the monuments of Tanis and the Bubastite Portal at Karnak. Although I am certainly no specialist in Akkadian or cuneiform, I must also respond to Sweeney's resurrection of Petrie's suggestion that the 22nd Dynasty had an Assyrian origin. Sweeney uses comparisons between Libyan names and Assyrian names as his sole argument for the "fact" that "The Libyan Dynasty was actually Assyrian". I would just like to put him straight on a few of these comparisons. a) He firstly concludes that Osorkon is the Assyrian name Ashur-kan. Unfortunately for Sweeney there is an ...
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