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... From: Kronos Vol. II No. 4 (Summer 1977) Home¦ Issue Contents Psychology and Ancient Astronomical Discovery David Griffard SYNOPSIS: Many disciplines agree that astronomy and astronomical concepts are of central importance in human cultures and have been so since the beginning of history. Ancient civilisations of both hemispheres measured time by astronomical cycles and worshipped celestial bodies as ... deities. Monarchs typically held both civil and religious authority in theocratic states which were controlled or significantly influenced by astronomer-priesthoods. Major religious ceremonies marked phases in astronomical cycles, celebrating the sequence of seasons and other ecologically important events. Others commemorated longer cycles associated with planets and stars. These formed the framework of complex calendric systems against which the basic patterns of religious ... measure the [tropical year with an error of less than 1 part in 40,000." But it is not until the 7th Century B.C. that the "ancient astronomer, by watching the varying length of a vertical column or gnomon [shadow concluded... that the tropical day [sic was equal to 365.25 days."(99 ...
Terms matched: 9  -  Score: 5039  -  05 Mar 2003  -  68k  -  URL:
2. The Great Comet Venus [Aeon Journal $]
... series of articles is to demonstrate that the "Velikovskian" methodology works. We will begin, in the present installment, by applying that methodology to Mesoamerican myths, symbols and astronomical traditions of Venus. That will be followed, in subsequent articles, by summaries of the Venus-image among other cultures, with sufficient cross-referencing to verify that the primary themes occur on ... upheaval in which the agent of destruction possesses cometary attributes, even as it is identified with the planet Venus. The anomalous "cometary" traits of Venus in ancient myth and astronomy became key pieces of the argument, and the strength of the argument derived from the breadth of sources. Velikovsky did not rely on traditions of one region only, but drew ... linked to the mother goddess. I make this observation in full recognition that many cultures did not preserve an astronomy or empirical discipline necessary to retain the identification. Fortunately, where astronomies did preserve the connecting link with Venus, more than sufficient evidence is available to decide the issue. 2) The mother goddess is inseparably linked to both the creator-king and the ...
Terms matched: 7  -  Score: 3714  -  05 Mar 2003  -  218k  -  URL:
3. Intimations of an Alien Sky [Aeon Journal $]
... basic rules that should be followed in the reconstruction of cosmic history, I had reason to claim that, in its cosmic interpretation, the mythological record "is backed by the astronomical lore that was current at the time." (1) While not meant to be exhaustive, a compendium of this ancient astronomical lore will now be discussed. But first ... minor afflictions as personal illness, bad fortune, and unrequited love, not to mention such mundane trials as family squabbles and lost sheep. Now it has often been stated that astronomy is the daughter of astrology but the truth is that both these disciplines were born as Siamese twins of etiology. (4) This is a natural outcome because astrological predictions could ... people of a different culture. Everyone could look up into the sky and see that Saturn did not shine as brightly as the Sun did. One need not have been an astronomer in order to expose such a deceit. What people might have believed is that Saturn could have once shone as a sun. This is different because although everyone could see that ...
Terms matched: 7  -  Score: 3666  -  05 Mar 2003  -  109k  -  URL:
... From: Horus Vol. 2 No. 1 (Winter 1986) Home¦ Issue Contents Collective Behaviorism and Ancient Astronomy David Griffard In Psychology and Ancient Astronomical Discovery (KRONOS II:4) it was shown that some form of astronomical lore seems always to have accompanied human development. In historical peoples, there is no question of the emphasis given to ... From: Horus Vol. 2 No. 1 (Winter 1986) Home¦ Issue Contents Collective Behaviorism and Ancient Astronomy David Griffard In Psychology and Ancient Astronomical Discovery (KRONOS II:4) it was shown that some form of astronomical lore seems always to have accompanied human development. In historical peoples, there is no question of the emphasis given to ... human beings but much of the animal kingdom as well would acquire certain astral/ seasonal/behavioral associations through conditioned learning alone. The complex, conscious, intelligent achievements of ancient astronomers in relation to these conditioned associations is neither discounted nor diminished though, from the view of behavioral science, the course of this adaptive behavior and discovery was pre-determined by the nature ...
Terms matched: 7  -  Score: 3657  -  05 Mar 2003  -  27k  -  URL:
... received opinions about such matters as intercalation have developed. Over the years there has been a close cooperation between Assyriologists and astronomers. The interpretation of texts has been carefully guided by astronomical retrocalculation, in accordance with uniformitarian principles. The Venus Tablets of Ammizaduga is a microcosmic replica of the sort of cooperation that has pervaded scholarship generally: Langdon was an Assyriologist, ... aware that the ancients were just as inclined as are the moderns to rely on computation instead of actual observations. This can be seen from Science Awakening II: The Birth of Astronomy, written, according to the title page, "by Bartel L. van der Waerden with contributions by Peter Huber". In his Preface, van der Waerden says that ... accordance with uniformitarian principles. The Venus Tablets of Ammizaduga is a microcosmic replica of the sort of cooperation that has pervaded scholarship generally: Langdon was an Assyriologist, Fotheringham was an astronomer, and Schoch was a mathematician, concentrating here on tables to facilitate astronomical retrocalculation. In the work of these three scholars the interdisciplinary cooperation, though misguided, was there for ...
Terms matched: 7  -  Score: 3594  -  05 Mar 2003  -  95k  -  URL:
... A star carrying inside itself an unexplained dark or reddish sphere. The theoretical problem is that, from one ancient nation to another, there is far more consistency to these "astronomical absurdities" than is rationally conceivable within traditional theoretical frameworks. Here's the dilemma in a nutshell: random, irrational ideas could never produce global, coherent patterns at any level of ... didn't ask if we may have misunderstood our past. Rather, Sagan's expressed view-- the official view of science for many years-- fits comfortably within the textbooks on astronomy, geology, biology, anthropology, and ancient history. When we launched the U.S. Space program in the late 50's, then devoted billions of dollars to exploring neighboring planets ... symbol that does not answer to the configuration in an obvious way. With respect to the ancient sun god, for example, I've already noted here that, in the ancient astronomies, this god is identified with the planet Saturn-- an identity I will document at length. But that's only one level in a comprehensive and integrated thesis. I say ...
Terms matched: 7  -  Score: 3586  -  05 Mar 2003  -  56k  -  URL:
7. Greek Debt To Babylonians [SIS Internet Digest $]
... the Linear B tablets it is "iqo" (cf. Latin equus). It is small, but we have a tad of evidence here that the borrowing of Babylonian astronomical knowledge had already begun in Mycenaean times. (I find this amazing.) See L. Bobrova& A. Militarev: "From Mesopotamia to Greece: to the Origin ... Babylonians From: Peter James <> Date: 27 Feb 97 00:14:34 EST Clark Whelton asks: I'd like to know more about Greeks learning astronomy from Babylonians. Could you give me a reference, please? Thanks. Peter James replies: There is stacks of stuff. In Greek discussions of astronomy there are many, ... Vol. 1, p. 291 on Democritus "who had spent some time in the East and his astronomic ideas were definitely Babylonian", p.444ff which discusses the famous Babylonian astronomer Kidinnu (fl. 379 BC), who some people have argued (apparently disproved) was the real discoverer of the precession before Hipparchus, and the Greek debt to Kidinnu ...
Terms matched: 6  -  Score: 3180  -  05 Mar 2003  -  6k  -  URL:
... From: Horus Vol. 1 No. 1 (Winter 1985) Home¦ Issue Contents Ancient Astronomical Values Revealed in The Book of the Secrets of Enoch by Alban Wall The modern editor of the English translation of The Book of the Secrets of Enoch provided the following information concerning that ancient document: "This new fragment of early literature came to light ... Chapter I supplies a brief description of some of the book's contents: "An account of the mechanism of the world showing the machinery of the Sun and Moon in operation. Astronomy and an interesting ancient calendar." A thoughtful perusal of the entire book leads one to the inescapable conclusion that the author of "Secrets" was not himself an astronomer but ... a religious writer, and that, therefore, the astronomical data presented by him was drawn second-hand from reference sources available in that era. This fact will prove useful in helping to date the time of the book's composition. The astronomical information with which this paper deals is found in Chapters XV and XVI of "Secrets" and I quote the relevant passages ...
Terms matched: 6  -  Score: 3180  -  05 Mar 2003  -  12k  -  URL:
... From: Aeon III:3 (Oct 1993) Home¦ Issue Contents Astronomical Dating and Calendrics Gunnar Heinsohn I. The Debunked Masterpiece of astronomical dating: Sothic chronology A. The Pre-Sothic Dating Scheme of Comparative World History he most important and, at the same time, the most detrimental use of astronomical dating ever applied to ancient history was the Sothic ... , it is generally agreed, are now basically useless for astronomical dating because the unsystematic recording used by the ancients allow for an indefinite number of interpretations. The giant of Hellenistic astronomy, Claudius Ptolemy, whose famous Almagest recorded observations from March 127 to February 141 (Julian calendar A.D.), is an exception. Not for naught was he called the ... calendar of any sort. Concrete support for such a calendric cycle has yet to come to light. Let us check the documents in detail: 1. Theon: This Alexandrian astronomer gives the year -26 as the end of a period called "the Era of Menophres," and a marginal gloss in a foreign hand states: "...there were 1605 ...
Terms matched: 6  -  Score: 3144  -  05 Mar 2003  -  40k  -  URL:
10. Did Worlds Collide [Pensee]
... Newcomb, but actually at most a small multiple of 10 2 years. The eminent dynamical astronomer E. W. Brown, in his retiring speech as President of the American Astronomical Society in 1931, quite explicitly stated that there is no quantitative reason known to celestial mechanics why Mars, Earth and Venus could not have nearly collided in the past. A ... Bode's law but, as shown in 1972 by M. Ovenden, predicts current planetary distances with an average inaccuracy less than one percent. Currently Bass is Professor of Physics and Astronomy, Brigham Young University. A substantial portion of what follows will be beyond the reach of non-specialists. We have separated out certain sections of the paper in smaller type, thus ... clue as to which planet Venus encountered. Laplace's theorem allegedly proving stability of the solar system (1773) was shown to be fallacious in 1899 by Poincaré; in 1953 dynamical astronomer W. M. Smart proved that the maximum interval of reliabil ity of the perturbation equations of Laplace and Lagrange was not 10 11 years, as stated in 1895 by S ...
Terms matched: 6  -  Score: 3081  -  05 Mar 2003  -  84k  -  URL:
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