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18 pages of results.
1. Limitations of Astronomical Dating Methods* [Kronos $]
... record of antiquity prior to 763 B.C. which can be thus characterized, if one grants that there is no reasonable question on the dating of the Great Assyrian Eclipse.(11) Thus a method which theoretically might have served as a powerful tool in setting up the broad outlines of ancient chronology is reduced to one whose sole value has been that of refining a few dates in the era of the 8th century B.C. and later where there is rather abundant independent supporting evidence for the chronology. Meyer's Theory of Historical Dating from Sothic Data In addition to eclipse records, other types of astronomical data have been used in attempts to date ancient historical events or eras. Most notable of these is the use of the so-called Sothic period.(12) The Sothic theory presumes that the Egyptians used a calendar year of 365 days, without interruption, as far back as the Vth Dynasty or earlier. Since the true solar year is more exactly 365-1/4 days, the New Year of such a calendar would wander backward through the seasons at the rate of ...
2. Sothic Dating: the Shameless Enterprise [SIS C&C Review $]
... From: SIS Chronology& Catastrophism Review 1999:2 (Feb 2000) Home¦ Issue Contents Sothic Dating: the Shameless Enterprise by Jess E. Lasken The defenders of Sothic dating are shameless in their use of sources and data. Take, for instance, an article defending Sothic dating by Leo Depuydt of Brown University, published in the leading American Egyptology journal [1. This article reviewed the evidence for the proposition that the same Egyptian 365 day calendar was used without reform for approximately 3000 years ('the axiom of consistency'). It was intended to counter claims by Peter James [2 that Sothic dating had suffered a 'practical demise'. Depuydt reviewed the history of the axiom and summarised the evidence supporting it. He was forced to admit [3, 'There is to my knowledge, no uncontroversial evidence for the consistency of the wandering calendar before 473 BCE.' Nevertheless, he asserted that the weight of the evidence supports this. Furthermore, he claimed that double-dated documents from the Persian period show that 'from about 473 onwards, the Sothic hypothesis ...
3. On Sothic Dating: Some Preliminary Remarks [Kronos $]
... From: Kronos Vol. VI No. 1 (Fall 1980) Home¦ Issue Contents On Sothic Dating: Some Preliminary Remarks Lewis M. Greenberg The conventional reconstruction of Egyptian history is based on the assumption that the Egyptians regulated their calendar according to the heliacal rising of the star Sothis( Spdt in Egyptian), or Sirius. This is known as Sothic dating, and it has become the pillar of support for reckoning the absolute chronology of ancient Egypt. In the words of Montet: "Were it not for the dates determined by the Sothic Cycle which provide a few fixed points of reference, Egyptian chronology would be a very uncertain field." The application of Sothic dating presumes, among other things: 1) That Sothic astronomical calculations do, in fact, have historical validity; 2) That the calendar of Egypt remained unaltered throughout that period of history to which Sothic dating is applied; 3) That certain statements (see below) made by the Latin author Censorinus are definitive. As it happens, all of the above may be ...
4. Astronomy and Chronology [Pensee]
... to look at the Colossi of Memnon (statues of Amenhotep III), or the mortuary temple of Queen Hatshepsut at Deir el Bahari, or Ramesseum, the mortuary Temple of Ramses II and the colossus of that king, broken, lying in the dust, visited also the temple of Medinet Habu. The king who built this mortuary temple received the name of Ramses III. It appears that Joseph Justus Scaliger (1540-1609) made the earliest attempt to date the Egyptian dynasties of Manetho in his Thesaurus temporum (1606). "Sothic period" calculation, or an astronomical clue to Egyptian chronology, seemed to give promise. In the seventeenth and eighteenth centuries there were made no attempts of dating the kings of Egypt. Pritchard's date for Ramses III's mounting the throne was changed by Rosellini (1841) to -1477 without showing reason for this; Champollion-Figeac (I 778-1867), the brother of the decipherer, in 1839 placed Ramses III in -1279, but, again, without giving any ground or authority. When the texts accompanying the bas reliefs of Medinet Habu ...
5. A Re-examination of the Sothic Chronology of Egypt [Kronos $]
... From: Kronos Vol. II No. 4 (Summer 1977) Home¦ Issue Contents A Re-examination of the Sothic Chronology of Egypt Ronald D. Long Reprinted with permission from Orientalia, Vol. 43 (Nova Series- 1974), pp. 261-274. For many years now we have accepted and incorporated the astronomical chronology of Egypt into our histories of the ancient Near East. It is wise, however, to be aware of the potential error in the interpretations and conclusions of the past and the possibility that realignment may be necessary. We still do not possess a final and unquestionable Egyptian Sothic dated historical framework. Recently, Read challenged the traditionally held astronomical chronology of the Eighteenth Dynasty (JNES 29 [1970). A re-examination of the evidence is in order before our conception of an absolutely established and near perfect chronology influences our judgment of different possibilities. Certain ambiguous and problematic issues, the solutions of which are vital to an understanding and restoration of ancient history in the Near East, have been "shelved" pending the discovery of additional evidence ...
6. In Passing [SIS C&C Review $]
... From: SIS Review Vol IV No 1 (Autumn 1979) Home¦ Issue Contents In Passing Anchors Aweigh To abandon 1786 B.C. as the year when Dynasty XII ended would be to cast adrift from our only firm anchor, a course that would have serious consequences for the history, not of Egypt alone, but of the entire Middle East. Readers of the Review will already be familiar with this quotation from the eminent Egyptologist SIR ALAN GARDINER, typifying the dilemma of Near Eastern archaeologists over Sothic dating. Despite the manifest weaknesses of the Sothic dating theory, and although it is almost impossible to find an Egyptologist who will actually defend it, Sothic dates are still used as absolute reference points for the history of the ancient world. One of the most troublesome Sothic dates has always been that based on the supposed reference to the rising of Sirius in the reign of Sesostris III, from which the chronological benchmark of 1786 BC for the end of the XIIth Dynasty has been calculated. A few years ago it might have sounded over-optimistic to suggest that the ...
... From: Kronos Vol. VI No. 1 (Fall 1980) Home¦ Issue Contents The Sothic Dating of the Twelfth and Eighteenth Dynasties Richard A. Parker Editor's Note: The following article has been reprinted from STUDIES IN HONOR OF GEORGE R. HUGHES [Studies in Ancient Oriental Civilization, 39 (Jan. 12, 1977), pp. 177-189 by permission of Professor Richard A. Parker.- LMG Recently Ronald D. Long has taken modern scholars to task for placing uncritical and undeserved reliance upon the earliest Sothic dates as firmly establishing the chronological setting of the Twelfth and Eighteenth Dynasties.(1) His point is that when these dates were first published the Eighteenth-Dynasty date in 1873 and the Twelfth-Dynasty date in 1899 scholars debated them vigorously and reached no certain conclusions; but over the years the hypotheses proposed have come to be taken as facts now so firmly accepted that they are used as secure checks against other Near Eastern chronologies, as well as against carbon-14 dating. Long examines all the known Sothic dates, seven in number, but his ...
8. Conventional Chronologists: Sothic or So Thick? [SIS C&C Review $]
... From: SIS Chronology& Catastrophism Review 1999:1 (Jul 1999) Home¦ Issue Contents Letters Conventional Chronologists: Sothic or So Thick? A musing by John Crowe The more I read about Sothic Dating, the more amazing it is to find that so many brilliant Egyptologists gave it so much as the time of day. The poor chaps must have been quite desperate for something to hang their cartouches on. However just the evidence they have been looking for has now come to light- so here, with the help of two short stories, is a reaffirmation for those of the Sothic Faith, which I hope they will find convincing. Part 1: How Sothic Dating Was Invented Convention, in the person of the great Sir Alan Gardiner in his respected book Egypt of the Pharaohs, explains for us the concept and introduction of Sothic Dating. He says 'Various theories have been put forward to explain how the brilliant star Sirius (the dog star, equated by the Egyptians with their goddess Sopde, Greek equivalent Sothis) began to be recognised as ...
9. Astronomical Dating and Calendrics [Aeon Journal $]
... From: Aeon III:3 (Oct 1993) Home¦ Issue Contents Astronomical Dating and Calendrics Gunnar Heinsohn I. The Debunked Masterpiece of astronomical dating: Sothic chronology A. The Pre-Sothic Dating Scheme of Comparative World History he most important and, at the same time, the most detrimental use of astronomical dating ever applied to ancient history was the Sothic cycle of modern Egyptology. From its very inception it could not convince trained astronomers (1) or astronomically-minded historians of its validity. (2) Its purpose was to independently buttress Biblical chronology. It is not generally known today that from the 2nd to the late 19th century, chronologies of the ancient Near East and, indeed, of the entire world, were bound to the date of the patriarch Abraham. (3) Take any history book from the period before 1878, the year in which Julius Wellhausen wrote his History of Israel, and the name that will crop up most often is that of the Biblical Abraham. He is said to have arrived in Mesopotamia from Chaldea, (4) ...
10. Sun, Moon, and Sothis [SIS Internet Digest $]
... Moon, and Sothis http://www.knowledge.co.uk/sun-moon/ Sun, Moon, and Sothis: A Study of Calendars and Calendar Reforms in Ancient Egypt. A book by Lynn E. Rose. The history, of calendars is far from cut-and-dried. Almost every topic that this book addresses has long been the subject of heated controversy. Rose sees Hellenistic and Roman Egypt as of unparalleled importance in the history of calendar development. Even the Julian calendar had its origins in Hellenistic Egypt. Very likely, the Julian calendar itself was Sothic-- that is, designed to follow the movements of the star Sothis (Sirius), and not just the annual motion of the Sun. Since the traditional Egyptian calendar of 365 days fell about one-fourth of a day short of the natural year, the ancients assumed that the heliacal rising of Sirius would move through the Egyptian calendar in 365 x 4= 1460 Julian years (that is, one Sothic peniod). Egypt's Middle Kingdom has conventionally been dated to some 4000 years ago, largely on the basis of documents ...
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