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Search results for: persian in all categories
382 results found.
39 pages of results.
1. Old-Babylonian and Persian Terra-Cotta Reliefs [Aeon Journal $]
... From: Aeon II:4 (1991) Home¦ Issue Contents Old-Babylonian and Persian Terra-Cotta Reliefs Gunnar Heinsohn In Die Sumerer Gab es Nicht, as well as in Ghost Empires of the Past, the author tried to prove that the Ancient Near Eastern periods from the middle of the third to the beginning of the second millennium BCE are desk-fabricated duplications of the well-known periods of the first millennium BCE. (1) Thus, I claim that the Sargonic Akkadians (2400 BCE onwards) correspond to the pre-Medish Assyrians (750 BCE onwards), who should not be mixed up with the Sargonids (conventionally dated to the same period but stratigraphically belonging to the Persian period). (2) The Neo-Sumerians (2150 BCE onwards) correspond to the Neo-Babylonian/Late Chaldeans (625 BCE onwards), whereas the Old-Babylonian Empire of the Mardu (2000 BCE onwards) represents the Babylonian satrapy of the Persian Empire (540 BCE onwards). The Persians were also known as Mardians (Amardians), after the tribe of Cyrus the Great. (3) Note ...
2. Heinsohn's Ancient "History" [Aeon Journal $]
... reign, Hammurabi controlled all of Babylonia and part of Northern Mesopotamia. All told, Hammurabi reigned a period of 43 years. Darius, in contrast to Hammurabi, was not born into the kingship; rather, he had to fight and conspire for everything he achieved. Darius' father, far from being the king of Babylon, was a satrap of Parthia and Hyrcania. [12 At age 28, Darius could be found serving as a spear-carrier in the army of Cambyses II, son of Cyrus the Great, as the Persian king set about conquering Egypt. [13 Upon the sudden death of Cambyses II, chaos overran the Persian empire, whereupon the rebel Gaumata (also known as Bardiya or Smerdis) usurped the kingship. Together with six other nobles, Darius succeeded in murdering Gaumata and claiming the throne for himself. The apparent chaos among the Persian leadership, in turn, inspired most of the satrapies to revolt and thus Darius was forced to put down one rebellion after another, first in Elam, then in Babylon, as well as in ...
3. Who Were the Assyrians of the Persian Period [Aeon Journal $]
... From: Aeon III:2 (May 1993) Home¦ Issue Contents Who Were the Assyrians of the Persian Period Gunnar Heinsohn See note* below. The encounter between the Achaemenian Empire and Babylonia (Mesopotamia) seems to have left surprisingly insignificant impact on the latter. The flowering created by the contacts of Babylonia with Hellenism and the Parthian civilization respectively stands in unmistakable contrast to the sterility and lack of interaction which seems to characterize the Achaemenian presence in Babylonia. (A.L. Oppenheim, "The Babylonian Evidence of the Achaemenian Rule in Mesopotamia," in The Cambridge History of Iran, Volume I [Cambridge, 1985, pp. 530-595.) It should be clear from the foregoing that the evidence for Persian rule of Babylonia (Mesopotamia) from 539 to 465 presents major problems and that a reconstruction of the political history of the area is an almost impossible task. (A. Kuhrt, "Babylonia from Cyrus to Xerxes," in The Cambridge History of Iran, Volume IV [Cambridge, 1988, pp. 135ff.) Within the ...
4. Did the Sumerians and the Akkadians Ever Exist? [Aeon Journal $]
... dagger with a golden handle from Alaca. Hüyük-- dated to approximately 2300 BCE-- appears 1100 years too early even in the conventional chronology for the Iron Age. For the "Akkadian" kings the umbrella becomes one of the royal insignia; it only reappears 1500 years later with the Assyrians kings. The Indus Valley culture of Harappa and Mohenjo-Daro has been dated to the third millennium via Sargon of Akkad, which is contrary to the stratigraphic evidence. The excavators of Ur were surprised to discover that a deposit of the Persian era contained objects of the time of Sargon of "Akkad," 1800 years older. V From ca. 2112 BCE: After the victory over the Akkadians, renaissance of the "Sumerians" with the so-called Third Dynasty of Ur. Problems: In the excavations of Uruk, the strata of this "neo-Sumerian" period of the late third millennium occur together with the strata of the so-called "neo-Babylonian" period, 1500 years younger. These strata, which belong together archaeologically, frequently lie directly above the Early Dynastic strata ...
5. Reflections Of The Persian Wars [The Velikovskian $]
... From: The Velikovskian Vol 1 No 1 (1993) Home¦ Issue Contents Reflections Of The Persian Wars Charles Ginenthal Both Hammurabi and Darius I are the sixth kings in a line of 11 kings. They conquered large territories and held the reins of large administrations. In Our Oriental Heritage, Will Durant states that "Hammurabi and Darius I were separated by differences of blood and religion, and by almost as many centuries as those that divide us from Christ; nevertheless, when we examine the two great kings we perceive that they are essentially and profoundly akin." (1) This article is a continuation of research into Professor Gunnar Heinsohn's hypothesis (2) presented in Sumerians and Akkadians Never Existed. (3) One of the claims Professor Heinsohn makes is that the 11 kings of the First Babylonian Dynasty are the alter egos of the real 11 kings of the Persian Dynasty. (4) Having satisfied myself that the stratographical record, as presented by Heinsohn, shows no clear correlations with conventional chronology, it seemed proper to go to Mesopotamian history ...
6. Did the Achaemenids Ape the Assyrians? [SIS C&C Workshop $]
... ruled before; and the Medes also took Nineveh (but how they took it I will show in another part of my book), and they made the Assyrians their subjects, except for the province of Babylon' [2. Mainstream Assyriology, again, boasts the claim that- after 150 years of digging up Assyria- not a single brick or potsherd belonging to the Assyrians of the Medish period (-630 to -550) was ever found. The author claims the identity of Mitanni Assyria with Medish Assyria and of post-Mitanni Assyria with Persian period Assyria. In his latest article [3 he illustrated the latter identification by a juxtaposition of Assyrian and Achaemenid items from all fields of their material and spiritual culture. Whereas in that article he used one page for each pair of items, here they are arranged as a frieze. The references to the items shown are all given in the original article. This frieze contains typical cultural items from the ancient Near East. All the illustrations in the upper row derive from inside Assyria or from sites dominated by Assyria. The ...
7. Recent Developments in Near Eastern Archaeology [SIS C&C Review $]
... has been a startling but little noticed development in the Jordanian view of Iron Age IIC. This period has long been thought to end in the early 6th century BC with Nebuchadnezzar's destructions of Jerusalem, Lachish, several Philistine cities, etc. There is certainly a widespread destruction horizon at these sites. A few Israelis would admit some continuity of Iron IIC pottery through the Babylonian period. Archaeologists working in Jordan have for several years dated the end of Iron IIC about 50 years later at c. 539 BC, the beginning of the Persian period. However, they were puzzled by the lack of archaeology with which to fill the long Persian period. They have now found the solution- Iron Age IIC pottery styles continue well into or possibly right through the Persian Period. This shift of opinion is summarised on pp. 71-72 of B MacDonald's new book Ammon, Moab and Edom (Amman 1994). MacDonald names the following other Jordanian specialists as supporting this view: Bienkowski [C Bennett& Bienkowski Excavations at Tawilan 1995 p. 102, Herr [BAR 19 ...
8. EARLY GLASSMAKING AND CHRONOLOGICAL PUZZLES [Aeon Journal $]
... IV is level IIIB and above level IIIB is level IIIA of the Hellenistic period after -300. Level IIIB has to be stretched over half a millennium (-800 to -300). Ceramic from our level IV already had to be described as "on the way to Archaemenid Iranian ware." (44) This proto-Achaemenid ware even would make a lot of sense as full-clad Achaemenid ware with Hellenistic ware found in level IIIA. From the stratigraphic point of view, thus, one would date level IV with its inlaid glass beakers in the Persian period of the 5th or 4th century B.C.E. This is also indicated by the famous Iranian Ibex (wild goat) motive shown not only on the beakers but also on other objects from Hasanlu IV. (45) Hasanlu's Achaemenid outlook does not pose the only problem in bridging Egypt's glass gap by use of supposedly 9th century Iranian inlaid glass. More serious is the fact that Egypt has her own mosaic or inlaid glass technique. It dates from the epoch when it lived under Achaemenid rule. Mosaic glass "appears again in ...
9. Early History of the Israelite People: Biblical Fundamentalism in History (II) [The Velikovskian $]
... Indus Valley has no head start of two millennia over the Ganges Valley, India, China and Mesoamerica. This evidence-based view is also borne out by Tel Dan. The pseudohiatus of 400 years between Dan's strata I and II simply has to be taken out of chronology because it was derived from fundamentalism but not from the evidence in situ. This means that stratum II does not end around -700 but lasts until around -300. The conclusion to be drawn is that the stele mentioning the House of David in alphabetic Aramaic belongs to the Persian period. Thompson may not be aware that all Aramaic texts from areas found in territories dated by stratigraphy and Persian-Greek chronology are dated after -520. Only Aramaic texts dated by fundamentalism begin around -900 or earlier. In an article published in Vorzeit-Frühzeit-Gegenwart, I compiled the evidence available on that matter. (8) Scholars of Aramaic were always bewildered by the fact that Aramaic writing dated from -900 to -600, looks very much like Aramaic dated between -500 and -300. There was little or no evolution of script and language. Yet ...
10. Sothic Dating: the Shameless Enterprise [SIS C&C Review $]
... used without reform for approximately 3000 years ('the axiom of consistency'). It was intended to counter claims by Peter James [2 that Sothic dating had suffered a 'practical demise'. Depuydt reviewed the history of the axiom and summarised the evidence supporting it. He was forced to admit [3, 'There is to my knowledge, no uncontroversial evidence for the consistency of the wandering calendar before 473 BCE.' Nevertheless, he asserted that the weight of the evidence supports this. Furthermore, he claimed that double-dated documents from the Persian period show that 'from about 473 onwards, the Sothic hypothesis is not really a hypothesis but simply the truth' [4. Before examining this latter claim in more depth, we should first turn to Theon, a source whom Depuydt and others before him have cited in support of Sothic dating. We shall find that Theon actually contradicts current Sothic dating assumptions. The Origins of Sothic Dating Sothic dating, of course, starts with Censorinus. In AD 238, this Roman scholar wrote in De Die Natali that the Egyptians had ...
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