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681 results found.
69 pages of results.
1. Venus Tablet Anomalies [SIS C&C Workshop $]
... From: SIS Chronology and Catastrophism Workshop 1989 No 2 (Feb 1990) Home¦ Issue Contents Venus Tablet Anomalies by John D. Weir The Babylonian baked clay Venus Tablets are damaged copies of a twenty-one year sequence giving the day after settings of the planet Venus and the rising dates with astrological omens added. Twenty-one years is the reign length of King Ammisaduqa of the Hammurabi Dynasty. Since his 8th date-formula is found after Year 8 of the Venus Tablets, the record is thought to have originated in Ammisaduqa's reign. The historical date of this reign has not yet been established by archaeological means. But an astronomical investigation carried out by Peter J. Huber of Harvard University dated the reign as 1702-1681 BC [1. Now many of the recorded invisibility periods of Venus, especially at superior conjunction, are longer than computed [2. That is to be expected. The climate of Mesopotamia is dry for most of the year, and there are frequent dust storms. 'Arc of vision' values for the recorded observations are consistent with dust in the atmosphere [ ...
2. Sothic Dating: the Shameless Enterprise [SIS C&C Review $]
... Shipyard Journal or Journal of the Memphis Arsenal, found in a papyrus from Saqqara [11. Several other dates from 472 and 471 BCE can be cited in support. There is therefore not the least doubt that, from about 473 onwards, the Sothic hypothesis is not really a hypothesis but simply the truth.' [12 Porten's work This argument builds upon a study by Bezalel Porten [13. Porten proposed placements of a number of double-dated Aramaic documents. He assumed that the 'Babylonian' calendar in the documents was the official Babylonian/Persian lunar calendar. His Egyptian date conversions follow the Censorinus calendar. Subject to a few uncertainties, the Neo-Babylonian calendar is well understood through the efforts of Parker and Dubberstein [14. During the Persian period, this lunar calendar was kept in synchronisation with the sun by the insertion of 7 intercalary months every 19 years. However most of the documents dated by Porten are from the Jewish military colony at Elephantine and many scholars believe the dates are from a Jewish calendar [15. Whilst the Jewish lunar calendar during the ...
3. The Foundations of the Assyro-Babylonian Chronology [SIS C&C Review $]
... Handbuch der Matematischen und technischen Chronologie, I, (Leipzig 1906), p.139 The Eponym Canon and Ptolemy's Canon When Sir Henri Rawlinson's translation of the eponym lists appeared in print in 1866, their importance for the fixing of the Neo-Assyrian chronology was immediately realised [4. It was pointed out that the limmu-list at several points could be linked up with and brought into chronological harmony with the Canon of Ptolemy- a list of kings and their length of reigns beginning with the rule of Nabonassar in Babylon (747-733 BC) through the Babylonian, Persian, Greek and Roman rulers to Antoninus Pius (138-161 AD), a contemporary of Ptolemy. In this way, and not by the aid of the Eponym Canon eclipse, it was first shown that the eponymy of Pur-Sagale fell in the year 763 BC. Prof. Eberhard Schrader, in a work published in 1878, demonstrated this mutual agreement between the limmu-list and Ptolemy's Canon, and concluded: "Thus the Canon of Ptolemy performs the double service to the Assyriologists: it fixes the line of eponyms in the ...
4. Heinsohn's Ancient "History" [Aeon Journal $]
... sources. Since AEON has taken an active role in publicizing Heinsohn's researches, it follows that we have a certain responsibility to keep our readers informed of recent developments and, where necessary, point out problems as they come to our attention. The current article examines Heinsohn's attempted identification of Hammurabi with Darius, arguably the most novel and controversial claim in a historical reconstruction remarkable for its radical nature. This identification, should it be upheld, would signal a revolution in our understanding of ancient history, since it would mean that the Old Babylonian king's reign-- conventionally dated to c. 1792-1750 BCE (according to the middle chronology)-- rightly belongs in the Achaemenid period (c. 500 BC). Heinsohn's claims have the singular advantage of being easily falsified, one of the hallmarks of a sound scientific hypothesis. Jan Sammer accurately summarized the situation in 1988, in a special issue of AEON devoted to Heinsohn's theory: "Heinsohn's is not an abstruse argument about the succession of ancient dynasties. If Heinsohn is right, the entire history of the development ...
5. Ancient Astronomy and Celestial Divination [SIS Internet Digest $]
... and Celestial Divination Kronia List, 08 Mar 2000 Ancient Astronomy and Celestial Divination. A book by N. M. Swerdlow (ed.) In the ancient world, the collection and study of celestial phenomena and the interpretation of their prophetic significance, especially as applied to kings and nations, were closely related sciences carried out by the same scholars. Both ancient sources and modern research agree that astronomy and celestial divination arose in Babylon. Only in the late nineteenth century, however, did scholars begin to identify and decipher the original Babylonian sources, and the process of understanding those sources has been long and difficult. This volume presents recent work on Babylonian celestial divination and on the Greek inheritors of the Babylonian tradition. Both philological and mathematical work are included. The essays shed new light on all of the known textual sources, including the omen series Enuma Anu Enlil, which contains omens from as far back as the early second or even third millennium, and the earliest personal horoscopes, from about 400 B.C., as well as the Astronomical Diaries, ephemerides ...
6. Greek Debt To Babylonians [SIS Internet Digest $]
... is subscribed to the list. To subscribe to the Kronia list, send an email to firstname.lastname@example.org requesting that you want to join. Greek Debt To Babylonians From: Peter James <email@example.com> Date: 27 Feb 97 00:14:34 EST Clark Whelton asks: I'd like to know more about Greeks learning astronomy from Babylonians. Could you give me a reference, please? Thanks. Peter James replies: There is stacks of stuff. In Greek discussions of astronomy there are many, many references to Babylonian and Chaldaean knowledge of astronomy. To trawl through all the classical references would be impossible, but here is one early and one late to give the range of ideas as well as dates. Herodotus II.109.3 says that "knowledge of the sundial (polos) and the gnomon and the twelve divisions of the day came into Greece from Babylon". Seneca (Natural Questions VII,4,1) cites the views on comets of two Greeks who say they studied among the Chaldaeans, Epigenes and Apollonius of Myndus. "Apollonius ...
7. Hammurabi and the Revised Chronology [Kronos $]
... From: Kronos Vol. VIII No. 1 (Fall 1982) Home¦ Issue Contents Hammurabi And The Revised Chronology Immanuel Velikovsky Copyright (C) 1982 by Elisheva Velikovsky Editor's Note: The present article is a modified and partially updated version of one of the original unpublished chapters of Ages in Chaos. Readership response is welcome.- LMG King Hammurabi is the best known of the early monarchs of ancient times due to his famous law code, found inscribed on stone. This great lawgiver of ancient Babylon belonged to the First Babylonian Dynasty which came to an end, under circumstances shrouded in mystery, some three or four generations after Hammurabi. For the next several centuries, the land was in the domain of a people known as the Kassites. They left few examples of art and hardly any literary works- theirs was an age comparable to and contemporaneous with that of the Hyksos in Egypt, and various surmises were made as to the identity of the two peoples.* A cartouche of the Hyksos king Khyan was even found in Babylonia(1) ...
8. Old World Maps -- A Response to Charles Ginenthal [The Velikovskian $]
... spring has been placed at "the First Point of Aries," meaning the zodiac house of Aries (not the stellar constellation). Each of the zodiac houses is assigned 30 degrees. So, with twelve zodiac houses at 30 degrees each, a complete rotation is 360 degrees. Likewise, one complete evolution of the zodiac was 25,920 years (13)-- equal to 2,160 years per "house." One of the problems which has deviled ancient and modern astronomers and mathematicians is that the original Babylonian, "First Point of Aries" was, for some reason, not placed at "zero" but at eight degrees (of the 30 degrees) into Aries. (14) (The Precession of the Equinoxes moves the Vernal Equinox point 50.2 inches per year, but the Babylonians used 50 inches per year. So the original "First Point of Aries" is now in Pisces). Nevertheless, spring is still spring; that is, the Vernal Equinox is still the time of equal day and night. The ...
9. Who Were the Assyrians of the Persian Period [Aeon Journal $]
... From: Aeon III:2 (May 1993) Home¦ Issue Contents Who Were the Assyrians of the Persian Period Gunnar Heinsohn See note* below. The encounter between the Achaemenian Empire and Babylonia (Mesopotamia) seems to have left surprisingly insignificant impact on the latter. The flowering created by the contacts of Babylonia with Hellenism and the Parthian civilization respectively stands in unmistakable contrast to the sterility and lack of interaction which seems to characterize the Achaemenian presence in Babylonia. (A.L. Oppenheim, "The Babylonian Evidence of the Achaemenian Rule in Mesopotamia," in The Cambridge History of Iran, Volume I [Cambridge, 1985, pp. 530-595.) It should be clear from the foregoing that the evidence for Persian rule of Babylonia (Mesopotamia) from 539 to 465 presents major problems and that a reconstruction of the political history of the area is an almost impossible task. (A. Kuhrt, "Babylonia from Cyrus to Xerxes," in The Cambridge History of Iran, Volume IV [Cambridge, 1988, pp. 135ff.) Within the ...
10. Additional Notes on Assyro-Babylonian Chronology [Catastrophism & Ancient History Journal $]
... CR. A few comments on some of his statements will suffice here. Dating notations First, a few words should be said about Schlecker's criticism of the dating notations used in my article. He says he has "never understood the need for double-dating (649/48), to impress the reader" (Schlecker, p. 106). Accusing scholars for using this convention "to impress the reader" is almost ridiculous. On the contrary, it is a very common, simple and convenient way of expressing Assyrian or Babylonian regnal years, and there are certainly no scholars who apply this usage for any other purpose. As the first month of the Babylonian calendar year, Nisan, fell in the Spring (about March/April), a regnal year covered parts of two years in our calendar. A common convention for expressing a specific regnal year, therefore, is the use of double-dating. When Ashurbanipal's 20th regnal year is said to correspond to 649/48 BC, I'm sure that every scholar acquainted with Babylonian chronology at once understands it ...
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