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... to the records of Thutmose III concerning his campaign in Palestine or tribute paid to him; and it has no Egyptian counterpart to the biblical record of a tribute paid by Israel to Pharaoh So. When Samaria chose to give her allegiance to Egypt, Isaiah regarded it as a political mistake. Isaiah 30:1 Woe to the rebellious children 2 That walk to go down into Egypt... to strengthen themselves in the strength of Pharaoh, and to trust in the shadow of Egypt 4 For his princes were at Zoan [Tanis and his ambassadors came to Hanes. Because of the tribute Sosenk received from Hoshea, king of Samaria, the Ten Tribes of Israel were doomed to lose their homeland. Shalmaneser IV besieged Samaria. It is doubtful whether Sosenk sent a military expedition into Palestine to relieve the siege of Samaria by the Assyrians. There is no mention of it in the books of Kings or Chronicles, nor in extant Egyptian documents. Isaiah said: "For the Egyptians shall help in vain, and to no purpose." "Therefore shall ...
72. The Sothic Dating of the Twelfth and Eighteenth Dynasties [Kronos $]
... . 23. Parker, Calendars, secs. 188-218. 24. Erik Hornung, Unrersuchungen zur Chronologie und Geschichte des Neuen Reiches (" AgyptologischeAbhandlungen,"Vol. II [Wiesbaden, 1964),pp. 20-21. 25. Richard Parker, "Sothic Dates and Calendar 'Adjustment,'" RdE 9 (1952), p. 103; idem, review of Untersuchungen zur Chronologie und Geschichte des Neuen Reiches, by Erik Hornung, in RdE 19 (1967), p. 186, n. 1. 26. Tanis stela, Greek, 1. 39; Demotic, 1. 38; hieroglyphic, II. 19-20. This was brought out long ago by G. H. Wheeler, "The Chronology of the Twelfth Dynasty," JEA 9( 1923), p 198. 27. Ptolemaic Chronology (" Munchener Beitrage zur Papyrusforschung und antiken Rechtsgeschichte," Vol. 43 [Munich, 1962). 28. Ibid., pp. 95-96. 29. Parker, Calendars, chap.2 30. AJA 79 (1975), ...
73. My Challenge to Conventional Views in Science [Pensee]
... sculpture as a feathered serpent on the grandiose monuments of Uxmal and Chichen Itza, where temples were built, one upon the other, if not to commemorate the ages, the last of which was dominated by Huitzilopochth, Ares of the Greeks, who protected the people of Troy, while Athene clashed with him protecting the Achaean host? Why was Mars of the Romans chosen as the protector of Rome, the greatest empire after the Empire of Heaven (Livy), while Athene gave her name to the capital of Attica, as Tanis to Tunisia? Why were human sacrifices brought in this country by the Pawnee Indians only a few scores of years ago, every fifty-two years connected with the Venus calendar? Why did the Ancient Assyrians mark on tens of thousands of clay tablets, free from any mythological theme, astronomical observations, but all data from before -687 are in contradiction to known values such as the duration of the daily rotation of the Earth, the time of the vernal equinox-- that by the way was repeatedly transferred, as was also the ...
74. Objections to the Revised Chronology [SIS C&C Review $]
... at the height of their power (cf. the Old Testament) whereas in the 4th century BC the Philistine's had ceased to be of importance. 4. THE EXODUS (Ages in Chaos, chapter 1) Conventional chronology associates the Exodus of the Israelites from Egypt with the reign of Rameses II (13th century BC, conventional chronology). This is supported by the fact that Exodus 1:11 states that the Israelites helped build the city of Raamses for Pharaoh. Raamses is the city in the Delta called Pi-Rameses (modern Tanis) and we know that this was built during the reign of Rameses II- indeed it was named after him. Velikovsky is clearly in trouble here, as his desperate expedients on page 45, note I (p.50*, not 100) show. First he suggests that there may have been kings earlier than the 19th dynasty with the name Rameses which could account for the name of the city in Exodus 1:11- however, none is known from the abundance of the Egyptian records. Secondly, he says that ...
75. In Defence of the Revised Chronology [SIS C&C Review $]
... Day). Claim? Under Part 3 I summarise Velikovsky's evidence for the identification of the Sea Peoples of Ramses III's time with the Persian Empire and its Greek mercenaries of the 4th century. Also Day's argument against this and the answer to it. The reader is left to draw his own conclusions. Similarly, Velikovsky proposes: the 2nd campaigns of Ramses II towards the Euphrates is recorded in his annals and in the Pentaur-poem, and has parallel in Jeremiah 46 (1). His first march towards it is related on the Tanis obelisk and the Nahr el Kalb (near Beirut), rock inscription, written in his second year (2). The city Kadesh the Old of the battle was Carchemish (3), where the remnants of the fortifications and double moats pictured by Ramses II are still recognisable (4). A fragment of a clay tablet dealing with the battle is preserved in the Boghazkoi archive (5). A treaty concluded between Ramses II and Nebuchadnezzar between the two sieges of Jerusalem in the days of Zedekiah is still extant ...
76. Bookshelf [SIS C&C Review $]
... evidence for his argument that Nekht-nebef was an administrator under the Persians. Nekht-hor-heb, usually equated with Nectanebo II, is similarly evicted to make room for Ramesses VI. Part Two deals with the XXIst Dynasty, and covers roughly the same period as that covered in Part One. For Velikovsky argues that the XXIst Dynasty, usually thought to be a pendant to the XXth, and dated to c. 1087-945 BC, was in fact largely contemporary with it. The major figures of the priestly XXIst Dynasty, with its two lines at Tanis and Thebes, are examined: Herihor, Psusennes, the two Peinuzems, Menkheperre and Siamon. Their inscriptions reveal more anachronisms, and more evidence pointing to a date in the Persian period; and once again Velikovsky provides examinations of aspects of the art and archaeology of this Dynasty in support of his case. Chapter One contains a resume of the evidence for the conventional placement of the XXIst Dynasty contemporary with the later Judges and the Kingdom under Saul, David and Solomon- this evidence, in short, amounts to precisely nothing ...
77. Letters [SIS C&C Review $]
... of names from the Book of Sothis. The notion of a pre-XIXth-Dynasty Rameses therefore remains, in my view, a theory with nothing to support it.) We are on firmer ground if we begin with the assumption that the name did become that of a city at the time of Rameses II but not before. The key questions are then: Where was the residence-city of that pharaoh located, and what is the history of the site? Pi-Ramesse was for a long time believed to have had the same location as the later Tanis, and this is the location assumed by Mr. Day. However, recent decades have seen a change of opinion on this topic. A combination of archaeological data and a careful study of the Egyptian sources describing Pi-Ramesse has led to the conclusion that the city was actually located some 15 miles further south, in the district of Qantir (1). But the history of occupation in that region reaches back to long before Rameses II built there. An important city (an administrative capital and trading centre) was established there ...
78. The Hebrew Patriarchs in Greek Tradition (Part I) [SIS C&C Workshop $]
... ' in C& C Workshop 1988:2, pp. 7-9 34. Aegyptos was an 'Arabian' king of the Melampodes or 'black footed' Delta inhabitants. The Arabian nome had as its chief city Per-Soped, also called Kes or Kessa- the city of Goshen where dwelt the Israelites. 35. Rees: op. cit., references 4-6 36. Manetho from Syncellus according to Africanus 37. As preserved by George the Syncellus. 'In this 5th year of Conchares... next in succession were four kings of Tanis who ruled Egypt in the 17th dynasty...' 38. Armenian version of Eusebius; see also version by Syncellus according to Eusebius: both in Manetho, Loeb Classical Library, pp. 97-99 39. G. A. Ainsworth: 'A pair of constellations' in Tribute to F. I. I Griffiths, p. 381 40. ibid, p. 382 41. Robert Graves: The White Goddess, p. 237 42. Ginzberg: op. cit., vol. II, p. 140 ...
79. Dating the Amarna Letters [SIS C&C Workshop $]
... his own victory over Libya ('desolation is for Tehenu'), Merenptah mentions Ramesses II's 'victories' over the land of Hatti and Syria- i.e. at the Battle of Kadesh ('Hatti is pacified'& 'Hurru is become a widow because of Egypt'); after a general phrase for the defeat of Canaan ('plundered is the Canaan with every evil'), he specifies Ramesses' two conquests of cities in that region: his sacking of Gezer ('seized upon is Gezer')- now confirmed by the recovery of a stela from Tanis- and his taking of Ashkelon ('carried off is Askelon'); the third city in this group was the primary focus of Seti I's great campaign into southern Canaan recorded on the northern outer wall of the hypostyle hall at Karnak ('Yanoam is made non-existent'). It is in this context that we should view the next section which deals with the defeat of Israel ('Israel is laid waste, his seed is no more'). We are unable, therefore, to be precise as to the regnal year in which any ...
80. The SIS Tenth Anniversary Tour of Egypt - Report [SIS C&C Review $]
... by 12.30 p.m. The rest of the day was free to relax in the sumptuous surroundings of this modern five-star hotel and to walk the Cairo streets in search of trinkets for friends at home. Thursday 13th September For our last full day in Egypt we had lined up a second, more comprehensive, trip to the CAIRO MUSEUM. The three hours of this morning visit enabled our party to view the incredible Tutankhamun Collection in some detail and to also take in the rooms containing the treasures from the 21st- and 22nd-Dynasty burials at Tanis. After lunch, back at the hotel, most of the group went on a tour of Old Cairo to see the mosques, Citadel and Khan Khalili Bazaar. David Roth, Derek Batcheller and myself, however, returned to Giza by taxi to spend a very atmospheric few hours wandering over the whole site as dusk settled over the desert plateau. We went inside the Great Pyramid of Khufu and then strolled over to the funerary temple of Khafre before heading out into the desert past the third smaller pyramid of Menkaure. Finally ...
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