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51. A Solution for the Third Intermediate Period of Egypt [SIS C&C Workshop $]
... Egyptian king, but is instead a reference to Hininsu (Heracleopolis in Middle Egypt), a seat of the 22nd-Dynasty pharaohs, who were descended from a line of priest-princes established in Hininsu for several generations before the age of Shoshenq I.(20) Thus Anysis of the 22nd Dynasty preceded Shabaka and remained extant on his departure, lending support to the identification of Pharaoh So with Shoshenq I. Consistent with this is Isaiah's mention of the principal cities of Pharaoh So: "... and his princes were at Zoan [Tanis and his ambassadors came down to Hanes [Anysis, Hininsu..." (Isaiah 30:4). Sethos and Sennacherib In 700 BC, on his third campaign, Sennacherib defeated the Kings of Egypt and the King of Ethiopia.(21) This may have precipitated the departure or withdrawal of Shabaka, but whatever happened, Velikovsky claims that in an unrecorded last campaign in 687 BC(22) a "blast from heaven" destroyed the Assyrian host, when, according to the Biblical narrative, Tirhaka King ...
52. Letters [SIS C&C Review $]
... 22nd dynasties. However, Aidan Dodson may be correct that there is only a small overlap of 25 to 50 years, with Psusennes II at the end of Dynasty 21 paralleling Shoshenq I the founder of Dynasty 22 (Revue d'Egyptologie 38 [1987 pp. 49-54 and in other publications). This does not necessitate abandoning the New Chronology; Usermaatre Osorkon 'II', normally mid-22nd dynasty, can still remain a ruler at the time of the early 21st and be buried before Pseusennes I, thus agreeing with the architectural evidence of the Tanis tombs. I shall continue to refer to Usermaatre Osorkon as 'Osorkon II' although he would in fact be the first. This idea was not prompted by any complicated reasoning but from another piece of architectural evidence. Fig 3b on p. 318 of Kitchen's Third Intermediate Period in Egypt shows an admittedly speculative reconstruction of the Bubastis temple, in which it appears that Osorkon I added a Forecourt to Osorkon II's Festival Court- obviously the wrong way round on previous chronologies. When Naville excavated the site in the last century (Bubastis ...
53. Society News [SIS C&C Workshop $]
... this at 665BC, one year before Taharka's overthrow by Ashurbanipal. Another in Kawa gives Taharka 6th, Shabako 15th and Shebitku 3rd. Kitchen noted this but ignored it, relating Shabako's dates to Shoshenq I, equating the latter with Shishak. As we know this to be false, we can proceed. Taharka's 6th is 685BC, from which we can deduce the others. Another Apis stela gives Bakenranef 6th and Shabako 2nd: 698BC. 3 stelas give Tefnakht 6th, 7th and 8th equivalent to Shoshenq 36th, 37th and 38th in Tanis. He was preceded by Pimay, whose highest recorded year was his 6th. Then Shoshenq, 53. The latter's 8th, 790= part of Pedubast's 1st of 25 in Leotopolis. Late in his 15th, 776 his son Iuput became co-regent. This is the date of the 1st Olympiad, which Manetho tells us took place during the (sole) reign of Pedubast I. Using Kitchen's data we can work out dates for Iuput I to II ending in 664, with reign lengths of 21, 6, 28, ...
54. The Chronology of the Late Kings of Egypt [Catastrophism & Ancient History Journal $]
... the Second Intermediate. As now envisioned, this period includes two parallel dynasties of the Hyksos, contemporary with the late XlIIth dynasty and also with the XIVth dynasty at Xois. The possibility seems never to have been entertained that the inability to arrive at a clear picture of the history in this Third Intermediate is the result of a failure to recognize further parallelism of dynasties in this period also. Yet it has long been recognized that even the single dynasty XXI was a 'split' dynasty with separate lines of kings, one ruling from Tanis in the Delta, the other from Thebes far to the south. Stranger still is the fact that Manetho never left a hint of such a divided rule, his list providing only the names of the kings at Tanis. It has been necessary to depend on evidence from the monuments for the names and order of the High Priest kings ruling at Thebes. 1 In the face of this situation, the concept of still further parallelism, as yet unrecognized, should not be eliminated from serious consideration. Velikovsky Challenges the Conventional Chronology ...
55. No title [Mythopedia Website]
... overleveringen vermengd zijn. Hij meent binnen het boek Exodus de uitdrijving van de Hyksos te kunnen onderscheiden van de vlucht van de HebreeŽn. Halpern gaat er eveneens van uit dat de overlevering van de Hyksos vermengd is met die van de HebreeŽn (32). Zijns inziens is dit echter al gebeurd onder koning Salomo, die immers connecties met de Farao had. De idee dat de slavernij 400 jaar geduurd had- zie Gen. 15:13; Ex. 12:40-41- zou teruggaan op een stŤle van Ramses II die naar Tanis verplaatst werd; hierop werd de inauguratie van de Hyksos-god Seth 400 jaar tevoren verheerlijkt. Op grond van materiaal dat de IsraŽlieten in Tanis vonden, zouden zij zichzelf met de Hyksos vereenzelvigd hebben. Ook omdat de namen van de aartsvaders thuishoren in de Hyksos-tijd- op verschillende scarabaeŽn wordt zelfs ene 'Jakob' als Hyksos-koning genoemd- zou IsraŽl wel degelijk een zekere affiniteit met de Hyksos hebben. De werkelijke uittocht zou echter los van de Hyksos staan en onder Merneptah plaatsgehad hebben. Zijn conclusie is dan ook: "Overall, the Joseph ...
56. The Libyans in Egypt: Resolving the Third Intermediate Period [Catastrophism & Ancient History Journal $]
... model Menreptah reigned c. 780-770 B.C. Menreptah's difficulties with the Libyans during his rule are well known. I suggest that the eclipse of the Nineteenth Dynasty is a convincing time for the triumph of the Libyans in Egypt. Allowing Manetho's 120 years for the Twenty-Second Dynasty would give approximate dates within my model of 780-660 B.C. Arie Dirkzwager, in his most valuable research on the period,[3 suggests that in Assurbanipal's annals (of the 667 B.C. uprising in Egypt) Putubisti of Tsa'nu and Susinqu of Pusiru are Petubastet of Tanis from Dynasty 23, and Shoshenq III of our Dynasty 22. This would agree well with my model. In absolute dates I have little difference from Dirkzwager's pioneering work, and also-- as will be seen-- avail myself of Peter Van Der Veen's investigations. Both of these writers, however, like Philip Clapham, assume Edwin Thiele's biblical chronology as valid, with related dates for the Twentieth Dynasty yielding approximately 715-685 B.C. dates for Pharaoh Ramses III.[4 On my model Ramses III reigned 750-720. Can ...
57. Theses for the Reconstruction of Ancient History [Velikovsky Archive Website]
... the Nineteenth Dynasty) and Pharaoh-Necho (of the Twenty-sixth Dynasty) of the Scriptures or Necos of Herodotus are one and the same person. 207. The theories that make Ramses II the Pharaoh of Oppression or the Exodus are wrong. 208. For nineteen years Ramses II was in a state of war with Nebu-khadnezar. 209. The defeat of Josiah is portrayed in a mural fragment, now in the Metropolitan Museum of Art. 210. The tribute imposed upon Judea and the imprisonment of Jehoahaz are referred to on an obelisk of Tanis. 211. The first march of Necho-Ramses II toward the Euphrates is related on the obelisk of Tanis and on the rock inscription of Nahr el Kalb near Beirut, written in his second year. The rock inscriptions of Ramses II are not as old as that of Essarhadon on the same rock. 212. The second campaign which Ramses II led toward the Euphrates is narrated in his annals and in the Pentaur-poem and has a parallel record in Jeremiah 46. 213. The Shardana mercenaries were the people of Sardis (Lydians) ...
58. Evidence of the Prophets and Egypt [Catastrophism & Ancient History Journal $]
... Ramesses II are correct, Merneptah came to power about 710 or 709, about a decade after the deportation of the Israelites and very near the time the Assyrians invaded Judah and carried away captive virtually everyone outside Jerusalem. A priest named Merneptah (probably the later king) is mentioned in an inscription of Takelot II [53 in whose time the civil war of Isaiah 19 began. Sethos, the Egyptian king who defeated the Assyrians under Sennacherib without firing an arrow, was described by Herodotus as a priest. Ramesses II built at Tanis (i.e. Zoan, a city prominent in the civil war of Isaiah 19) and at Heracleopolis Magna, the Hanes of Isaiah 30:4.[54 Heracleopolis was a capital of the Meshwesh kings. Even Midas, king of the Mushki in Phrygia, is mentioned by the Hittite king Arnuwandas III, a successor of Hattushilish III, the contemporary of Ramesses II. Midas committed suicide when the Scythians invaded Asia Minor about 695. Famine is recorded in the land of the Hittites in the time of Merneptah which, ...
59. Ancient Near Eastern Chronology: To Revise or not to Revise? [Catastrophism & Ancient History Journal $]
... invasions and a collapse of pharaonic power resulting in political retraction and the abandonment of the Egyptian empire in Palestine, suits most perfectly the biblical representation of the reign of David. In addition, early dyn 21 marks a revival in material prosperity that corresponds with the traditional, but magnified, age ofSolomon, the growth of commerce and the establishment of powerful Aramean dynasts in Syria and beyond the Euphrates (beth Eden= bit Adini of the Assyrians). In biblical tradition, Numbers 13:22, Hebron was built 7 years before Tanis (Zoan) in Egypt. The rise of Tanis is quite clearly associated with the demise of Pi-Ramesse 9 due to the silting of the Pelusiac branch of the Nile during late dyn 20. Hebron was abandoned at the end or during the MB period. It was reoccupied during the Iron period and conforms to the early monarchy reappearance of Hebron refer to I Sam 30:31 and II Sam 2:1. At the very end of dyn 20 the warrior priest Piankh waged a largely unsuccessful war in the south in an ...
60. Avaris and the Land of Goshen [Catastrophism & Ancient History Journal $]
... Note well that Manetho did not say that Avaris was to be found on the East BANK of the river, nor did he say that Avaris was to be found on the East of the Tanitic branch of the Nile (as the more Northerly section of the Bubastis branch came to be known in later times.) From this item of information we might deduce that Avaris did not lie to the East of the more Northerly Tanitic end of the Bubastis branch. That is, it would seem to rule out the proposed sites of Tanis, Tell el-Dab'a, Kantir-Kataaneh etc. Indeed, Raymond A. Weill~ in 1935, cited a hieroglyphic document in which Avaris (Hwt Waret) and the 'field' (or land) of Tanis are shown separate. Hence, it might be concluded that Avaris lay to the East of the more Southerly section of the Bubastis branch of the Nile. One might instead start to consider the area lying to the East of the said branch starting at the point where the Bubastis arm splits off from the Sebennytos branch, i.e ...
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