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41. Some 'New Chronology' Issues [SIS C&C Workshop $]
... New Chronology proposal (his reason 1) is not sound: we do not dispute the contemporaneity of Herihor and Ramesses XI but instead propose that Smendes overlapped the late 20th Dynasty. It is the Tanite line and not the line of priest-kings at Thebes which is at issue here- a point which Tony completely fails to understand. The only document which identifies Smendes and Herihor as contemporaries is the Story of Wenamun, a literary text, which does not mention king Ramesses XI and fails to attribute kingly titles to either the ruler of Tanis or the Theban High Priest. There are no surviving regnal dates for Smendes, and we only have Manetho's word for it that he ruled for 26 years. It is my contention that, as the founder of the Tanite 21st Dynasty, his 26-year rule was as a Great Chief of the Delta. Manetho included Smendes precisely because he was the founding father of the 21st Dynasty, even though the Tanite chief probably only took the full kingly titles after the death of Ramesses XI in the last few years of his Delta overlordship ...
42. Society News [SIS C&C Workshop $]
... illustrated excursion into the realms of 'The New Chronology'. We were led, breathless, from the route of attack of Shishak in Palestine, which showed that he could not have been the Libyan Shoshenq, to a consideration of the role of Sothis in dating; from the Royal Cache of mummies, which indicated that an early 22nd Dynasty burial took place during the mid 21st Dynasty, to the lesser vaults of the Serapeum where a great puzzle is the whereabouts of the expected 21st Dynasty bull burials. Then we were off to Tanis with the recent Egyptian tour, where we saw photographs and diagrams to indicate, once again, that a 21st Dynasty burial came after a 22nd. It was becoming obvious that the two dynasties were probably running parallel and therefore the Third Intermediate Period needed shortening. A consideration of the Memphite genealogy showed that the dates of Ramesses II needed to come down, which fitted nicely with the above evidence and a quick run through of David's evidence for the placement of the el-Amarna period at the time of the Early Monarchy of Israel led ...
43. Society News [SIS C&C Workshop $]
... elevated were originally laid down about 4000 BC, and the oldest traces of human activity in this area are pot sherds from the Persian Period (incorrectly given as about 700 BC).- It is inferred that the elevation occurred some time between 1500 and 700 BC. At this stage the older coastal route from Egypt went from Qantara, along the southern shores of the Bardawil Lagoon to El-Arish (Rynocorura).- After the elevation, between Persian and Mamluk times (1500 AD), a more northerly route was used from Tanis and Pelusium, through Mount Cassius and Ostrakina to El-Arish.- Fresh tectonic activity took place during the Roman period, around the 1st century AD, with some subsidence, and after 1500 AD this route had to be abandoned due to further plate movements causing the subsidence and partial submergence of two sections. Neev and Friedman point out that the Thera eruption also occurred about 1400 BC [this was the date then in vogue and this may therefore have coincided with the Sinai plate movements which caused the earlier elevation. There is insufficient ...
44. A Chronology for the Middle Kingdom and Israel's Egyptian Bondage - II. Israel in Egypt [SIS C&C Review $]
... to the date for the Hyksos expulsion, 1567 BC. The effective rule of the XIIIth Dynasty is therefore limited to the 112 years between 1786 and 1674 BC. However, many Egyptologists limit the rule of all Egypt by Dynasty XIII even further, by positing that from c. 1720 BC the extent of its control was reduced by Hyksos groups ensconced in thc NE Delta, where the Hyksos capital Avaris is normally thought to have been situated [12. The basis for this view is provided by the "400-year Stele" from Tanis. This is commonly interpreted as recording a visit by Seti I to the temple of Seth-of-Avaris on the 400th anniversary of its founding. Since Seti I's visit is conventionally dated c. 1320 or c. 1330 BC (actually in the period before he became pharaoh), the founding of Avaris by the Hyksos, who made Seth their patron deity, is dated c. 1720 or 1730 BC [13. Hence it is commonly held that the Hyksos were established in Avaris for about 50 years before wresting control of the whole ...
45. Some Notes on the "Assuruballit Problem" [SIS C&C Review $]
... contemporary with Assuruballit. Two further possibilities remain. JOHN BIMSON has remarked to this writer that Naphuri- resembles Neferibre', prenomen of Psammetichus II. Chronological considerations would seem to rule out this king, however, as his reign began in 595 BC, too late for him to have corresponded with Assuruballit. But there is evidence for a ruler by the name of Neferkare during the reign of Psammetichus I. A cornice from Athribis bears the alternating cartouches of Wahibre and Neferkare, the latter thought by MONTET to be a ruler of Tanis. KENNETH KITCHEN considers this possibility, and thinks that Neferkare may have been a kinglet of Tanis/Bubastis during the reign of Psammetichus [32. Assurbanipal hunting. Relief from Nineveh (bow, arrow and right hand removed). Drawing by Rosemary Burnard Thus this hypothesis might provide feasible identifications for the three names given in EA 15 and 16: with the Assyrian correspondent as Assuruballit II, Assur-nadin-ahe his father as Esarhaddon, and Naphuria as Neferkare, a Tanite king, if the latter two identifications are linguistically plausible. But ...
46. New Chronology Issues [SIS C&C Workshop $]
... the High Priests of Amun in or around the 13th year of Ramesses IX (802 BC). Smendes, founder of the 21st Dynasty, also begins his rule in the eastern Delta not long after the death of Ramesses III and in the same year as the accession of Ramesses IX (814 BC). Psusennes I (Tjetkheperre), son of Smendes (? ), becomes coregent at Per-Ramesses (following the death of Ramesses XI), whilst his father is still alive and resident both at Memphis (winter) and Tanis (summer) (791 BC). Following the death of Smendes, Amenemnisu becomes Psusennes' coregent at Memphis (789 BC)- hence the recognition of this minor king in the Memphite Genealogy. The adventures of Wenamun to Byblos and Alashiya take place in 792 BC (Year 5 of the Renaissance). Regarding the two Viziers Nebmarenakht, mentioned in Bernard's reply, the evidence does seem to place a Vizier called Nebmarenakht either side of the Vizier Khaemwaset (dated to Years 16 to 17 of Ramesses IX). It ...
47. An Answer to the Critics of Ramses II and His Time [SIS C&C Workshop $]
... been almost as great as the original distortion caused by the 'Sothic' chronology. It is in fact clear that a large body of evidence points to kings with 'Libyan' names a number of generations after the end of the 19th Dynasty. For example, one genealogy on a royal statue separates Osorkon I from Merneptah by ten generations. There are a number of such genealogies, and all of them separate the start of the Libyan age from the end of the 19th Dynasty by around 250 years. Equally significant are the monuments at Tanis, where blocks of Ramesses II are used as core-fill within buildings of Osorkon II and Shoshenq III. Furthermore, in one inscription, Osorkon II describes himself as the 'royal son of Ramesses'. Clearly these kings could not have come between the 18th and 19th Dynasties. According to the genealogy mentioned above, Osorkon I lived 250 years after Merneptah [11. Let us now suppose for a minute that Velikovsky was correct in placing Merneptah in the mid-6th century. The first Osorkon would therefore have flourished near the end of the ...
48. Forum [SIS C&C Workshop $]
... . It is clear that no prenomens are used for the kings concerned and therefore their identity must be sought through other means. Based on a generation of 20 years the first king we arrive at, looking back from Year 37 of Shoshenk V, is Osorkon some 120 years earlier. According to our approximate dating for Shoshenk V circa 680 to 630 (placing his Year 37 around the latter date) we must look for a king Osorkon around 760 and it is at this time that we find Osorkon II ruling in Bubastis/Tanis. The generation count seems to rule out Osorkon III and this is confirmed by the fact that his mother is known to have been a Kamama Merytmut.(2) Osorkon's mother is called Kapes on the stela. This being the case I have to concur with Lester that a Takelot I must have reigned prior to Osorkon II as we have direct evidence that II and III reigned after Usimare Osorkon Si-Bast (II).(3) I would also go along with the proposition that Sekhemkheperre Osorkon (I) is the ...
49. A Question of Logic [Catastrophism & Ancient History Journal $]
... comes between 1 July -590 and 30 June -589, with his thirty-fourth between 1 July -577 and 30 June -576, and his death not long after. As Velikovsky warns in his introduction, we must await the final volume of the series for the details of the protracted reign of Seti (II). Having made a case for Ramses II as Necho II he then proves that Merneptah is most unlikely to be Apres-Hophra by his own contradictory synchronization for these rulers. A point for further consideration is the question: Is Sais really Tanis? or will its ruins be found together with the royal archives of the Twenty-sixth Dynasty? Assyrian records refer to Necho of Memphis and Sais and Pedubastet of Tan is as local rulers at the time of Esarhaddon, 29 while at the time of Assurbanipal Breasted lists Necho of Sais and Sharaludari of Tanis. 30 A text listing the Nomes and their capitals furthermore shows Anub-het (Memphis), Sepiemhet (Sais), and Khentabet (Tanis). From the Hittite-Chaldaean-Babylonian perspective all is confusion and contradiction. I had pointed out that ...
50. Astronomy and Chronology [Pensee]
... ), or Sirius, became the alpha and omega for the numerical construction of Egyptian chronology. The Egyptian year, for a considerably long period of history consisted of 360 days; at some date in history, in a calendar reform, five days were added to the year. Under the Ptolemies another reform was contemplated, that of introducing a leap year every four years. In -238, in the ninth year of Ptolemy III Euergetes, a priestly decree was published in the Delta; in the last century it was found in Tanis and is known as the Canopus Decree by the place where the conclave reforming the calendar had taken place. It was composed, like the Rosetta Stone, in Greek, in hieroglyphic Egyptian and in demotic Egyptian --and, if it had been found before the Rosetta Stone, it would have been the key for deciphering the hieroglyphics. In order that the feast of the star Isis and other festivals "should not wander around the seasons," it was decreed at Canopus that one day every four years should be added and the ...
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