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21. Shoshenq I and the Traditions of New Kingdom Kingship in Egypt [SIS C&C Review $]
... . This family was certainly related to the ruling line of the 21st Dynasty and this relationship has been discussed by Kitchen who provides a plausible reconstruction of Shoshenq I's ancestry [1. The first king of the new dynasty was, moreover, an energetic and powerful ruler who erected monuments in many of the important towns throughout the land. Unfortunately the majority of them are either totally destroyed or poorly preserved, and our knowledge of those that are now lost comes from fragmentary inscriptions on blocks reused in the buildings of later times. At Tanis, in the northeast Delta, which was to become the main residence of the 22nd-Dynasty kings from the time of Shoshenq II onwards, Shoshenq I made additions to the new temple of Amun. This vast building was constructed largely of massive architectural fittings, colossal statues and obelisks of Ramesses II and Merenptah taken from other sites in the Delta, chiefly Pi-Ramesses, where earlier royal establishments had fallen into disuse [2. Scattered blocks from Bubastis, Tell el-Maskhuta and Memphis survive from his additions to the temples there, but nothing remains ...
22. Some Detailed Evidence from Egypt Against Velikovsky's Revised Chronology [SIS C&C Review $]
... father [27. Ramesses V is glossed over by Dr Velikovsky, even though a number of important documents date from his reign, including the famous Wilbour Papyrus, which records four consecutive surveys of fields between the Fayyûm and the modern town of el-Minyeh, about ninety miles along the river. Ramesses VII and VIII, who Dr Velikovsky says "were mere pretenders who left no marks in history except for their claims to the throne," are both monumentally attested. Ramesses VII reigned for at least seven years and dedicated temples at Tanis and Heliopolis, and his position as son and successor of Ramesses VI has been demonstrated by Dr Kitchen. Ramesses VIII is known to have reigned for at least one year from a graffito in the tomb of Kyenebu at Thebes [28, and he was probably a half-brother of Ramesses VI. All the Ramesside rulers are known from documents from Deir el-Medineh, and they all have great importance in the economic history of Egypt during the late New Kingdom. The reigns of Ramesses IX, X and XI are known from the documents ...
23. Forum [SIS C&C Workshop $]
... c. 804 BC+ 400 years= 1204 BC in power Rohl/James c. 975 BC+ 400 years= 1375 BC in power Although the Hyksos are not mentioned in the stela, the 400 years must point to date prior to the 18th Dynasty. According to this chart, one sees the Rohl/James, Glasgow and conventional chronologies all pointing to some form of the Hyksos conquest. Are we then to believe that Ramesses II was celebrating the Hyksos conquest of Egypt? Rubbish! Was he celebrating the founding of Tanis? Tanis was an ancient port long before the 400 year date. It was known as Zoan, in the Bible. Was this the founding of a temple to Seth, at Avaris, as David supposes? This argument has long been put to rest. The so-called evidence for this is the inscription, "beloved of Seth, Lord of Avaris", found on two 12th Dynasty statues usurped by Merenptah (see "The Problem of the Site of Avaris", Raymond Weill, JEA, vol 21, 1935) ...
24. Genealogical Evidence for a Shortening of the Third Intermediate Period of Egypt [Catastrophism & Ancient History Journal $]
... ambiguous from the start, or have quickly become so, because his year 3 appears to have been attested, probably in the west Delta (cf. later recognition of Dyn.22 regnal years in, perhaps especially, the west Delta), 84 and his year 6 is attested at Thebes. Here, this situation would probably mean that Takelot II's unpopularity was not restricted to Thebes and that Shoshenq III was able to pick up the slack quickly. On this basis, Shoshenq III would have become the natural successor to Takelot II in Tanis 85 as a result of the already unpopular Takelot II squandering his power squabbling with Pedubast I in the south. That is, an at least relatively neutral 86 Shoshenq III would have picked up the pieces, with Takelot II and Osorkon B gradually accepting a relative decline they couldn't prevent. Such an (at least initial) absence of (at least serious) hostilities between Shoshenq III and Pedubast I would fit well with what appears to have been a rather thorough accommodation between these rulers during years 22-29 of Shoshenq III. The ...
25. Society News [SIS C&C Review $]
... years. Using a video, he then showed excerpts from David Rohl's TV documentary, in which the three major chronological anomalies were shown and explained. These were:- (a) the Apis Bull burials at the Serapeum, where there were no bull burials from the end of Dyn. 20 until Osorkon II of Dyn. 22; (b) the Royal Cache of Mummies at Thebes, where it appeared that a Dyn. 22 burial occurred before the tomb was sealed in late Dyn. 21; (c) the Tanis Tombs, where we have Osorkon II of Dyn. 22 buried in his tomb before the Dyn. 21 pharaoh Psusennes I, again showing the two dynasties must at least overlap. Bob thought the last of these was the most compelling of the three anomalies. The various complicated and contrived explanations for this put up by various members of the Establishment were all unconvincing. The tombs showed the TIP chronology was some 150 years adrift at this point. Bob then raised a further problem, mentioned by Rohl, (ref. Test ...
26. Rohl's Revised Egyptian Chronology: Difficulties and an Alternative [Catastrophism & Ancient History Journal $]
... . A 6th descendant of the above Shedsunefertum is himself dated stylistically to late Dyn. 22 or a bit later (Louvre genealogy). Moreover, this impossible interpretation of the Berlin genealogy appears to have been used by Rohl only to support another: He has argued that a late dating of HPM Shedsunefertum would allow a dating of the Dyn. 21 king, Akheperre Psusennes (apparently named by this genealogy as contemporary with Shedsunefertum's 5th ancestor) to the mid-Dyn. 22 period, as can very plausibly be suggested from architectural evidence at Tanis, considered in isolation. 9 However, any other advantages of this scheme are very suspect 10, and it would require what appears (for a good number of reasons) to be a clearly erroneous distinction between Akheperre Psusennes and Psusennes I. 11 So it would appear that the just-mentioned Tanite evidence is misleading (as has long been generally accepted). 12 While the preceding analysis would eliminate one important argument for a very considerable shortening of the Late Period in Egypt, it would replace it with another, which is an ...
27. Chapter XXXII: the Early Temple and Great Pyramid Builders [Dawn of Astronomy (Book)] [Books]
... the list of the gods of Heliopolis, and have shown that with the exception of Sit none are stellar. But we find in pyramid times the list is increased; only the sun gods Ba, Horus, Osiris, are common to the two. As new divinities we have [5-- Isis. Hathor. Xephthys. Ptah. Serk-t. Sokhit. Of these the first two and the last two undoubtedly symbolised stars, and there can be no question that the temples of Isis built at the pyramids, Bubastis, Tanis, and elsewhere, were built to watch the rising of some of them. The temple of Saïs, as I have said, had east and west walls, and so had Memphis, according to Lepsius. The form of Isis at Saïs was the goddess Nit, which, according to some authorities, was the precursor of Athene. The temple of Athene at Athens was oriented to the Pleiades. There is also no question that the goddess Serk-t symbolised Antares. We find ourselves, then, in the presence of the ...
28. An Alternative to the Velikovskian Chronology for Ancient Egypt [SIS C&C Workshop $]
... identification with Osorkon III, dying at the age of 80, becomes eminently more feasible. This is strongly supported by another piece of evidence- Prince Osorkon's mother was Karomama Merytmut, whilst Osorkon III gave his mother's name as Kamama Merytmut. (10) According to Nile Level Text No. 13, Osorkon III's 28th year corresponded to the 5th year of Takelot III. These two kings were therefore contemporaries of the XXVth and early XXVIth Dynasties. Osorkon III would be the king Osorkon mentioned on the Piankhy stela ruling in Bubastis and Tanis, following the recently deceased Shoshenk III whom he had previously served as High Priest. Takelot III's reign would therefore have fallen during the reigns of Shebitku and Taharka. (11) The Wadi Gasus graffito concerning the God's Wives Amenirdis and Shepenupet gives us two reign dates which must be of two contemporary kings. The Year 19 would now belong to Osorkon III (Shepenupet being his daughter) and the Year 12 to Taharka (Amenirdis being his sister). The date which corresponds to the event of the graffito based on these ...
29. The Shrine of Baal-Zephon [Aeon Journal $]
... god, this supposition seemed reasonable. What should not, however, be overlooked is that, since the days of Abraham, the Hebrews had led a semi-nomadic life in that very Canaan which can rightly be called the land of the Baalim. The Scriptural narrative contains no intimation of Baal worship by the Hebrews prior to their migration into, and prolonged sojourn in, Egypt. Extra-Biblical sources, on the other hand, intimate otherwise. Like other Semitic deities, Baal had also found his way into Egypt where he was worshipped at Tanis and Memphis. (30) Ramesses II, known to us as the Great, Pharaoh of Egypt's Nineteenth Dynasty, had such respect for the imported deity that he considered himself a warrior like Baal. (31) Called Bar, or Pa-Bar, by the Egyptians, Baal was accepted by them as the god of their enemies and, as such, regarded with a certain amount of reverence and awe. (32) While in Egypt, the Israelites had occupied what the Old Testament refers to as the Land of Goshen ...
30. Chapter XXIV: the Years of 360 and 365 Days [Dawn of Astronomy (Book)] [Books]
... the regular recurrence of the Nile flood. In any case, this must soon have convinced the priests that the 360-days year did not agree with the facts. But it is well known to everybody familiar with these things how long a period may be required before such determinations are practically realised, especially with a people so conservative of ancient usages as the Egyptians." And on this ground, apparently, he joins issue with the authorities already quoted: "The Egyptian monuments have contradicted Ideler in this respect. The trilingual inscription of Tanis testifies expressly that it has only 'later become usual to add the five epagomenes;' that, therefore, the year originally had 360 days, which were divided into twelve months of thirty days each." Krall also argues that the expressions great and little year and their hieroglyphics referred to the years of 365 and 360 days respectively, and adds:-- "If we inquire into the time at which the epagomenes were introduced, we can only fix approximate dates. If the calendars of the Mastabas, complete as they ...
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