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... random mutations occurring after varying intervals and accomplished- often in groups- fairly swiftly, like those postulated by some schemes of evolution. The re-shufflings known as "sound-shifts" in High German are striking examples of this, and represent a distinct discontinuity in the reproduction of inherited speech patterns. Venus the Newcomer? Velikovsky's assumption is that the name "Venus" was created from the verb venire "to come". Orthodox linguistics, identifying Venus the goddess with venus the common noun, derives the name (pronounced "wenus" in Roman times, as we know from bilingual evidence of classical phonology) from a reconstructed IE root *wen-, to which we return below. The word venire, on the other hand, is traced (surprisingly, perhaps, to the layman) to the same root *g w em- which spawned the Germanic forms come, kommen, etc., as well as Greek baínein "to go" (3). An independent descent of "Venus" from this IE root is difficult to sustain, especially in ...
Terms matched: 1  -  Score: 20  -  05 Mar 2003  -  25k  -  URL:
... Through years of travel and study centered on the Gudrun stories, she has developed extensive evidence that the Gudrun Epic is an ancient oral tradition representing a unified whole which loses its meaning when the three parts are considered separately. She argues that the entire Gudrun Epic has a sound historical basis and that all specific places mentioned can be found where expected geographically, though their distribution covers a large geographic area. She has identified and visited the numerous places named in the tales and has traced the specific period of Gudrun's life in relation to Roman history. Of special interest here is the role of community folklore in maintaining the continuity and accuracy of oral traditions of ancient cultures. Wiencke-Lotz presents insight into how this occurs by sharing her own observations and participation in European community folklore-telling sessions which recounted versions of the Gudrun Epic. Each of eight clans originally involved played different roles in the history behind the tradition and told versions of the story from a unique points of view. By cross-comparisons of these various clan versions and from archaeological and historical evidence regarding specific places and events, ...
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103. The Origins of the Latin God Mars [SIS C&C Review $]
... confined to the functions of war and defence, he argued that the god's association with death and fertility was primary: "Originally a god of fertility, of death and the underworld, he at length had his range of activity narrowed down to war." [13 [* chthonic (chthonian)= pertaining to the earth or the underworld and the deities inhabiting it: ghostly Summarising thus far, it is fair to say that the cult of Mars has proved to be no easy nut to crack. Leading authorities on ancient Roman religion have arrived at diametrically opposite opinions in reviewing the same evidence. Certainly it is true to say that a consensus has yet to be reached regarding the god's origins and original sphere of influence, nor does a resolution appear likely in the foreseeable future. Perhaps the time has come for a new approach to the problem. With the notable exceptions of Roscher and Dumezil, most of the scholars investigating the cult of Mars have relied on the extant Latin records to make their case. This is all well and good, provided ...
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... as late as the fourth century. (5) His details, however, seem consistent with much of the account written by Pompeius Trogus, who wrote in the first century ACE, and he was therefore probably drawing on similar sources. At the earliest, this places Curtius in the first century ACE. Even so, we can say little about the man and his career or family. Plutarch, who wrote during the second century ACE, had much to say about Alexander's adventures in his compilation of the lives of Greek and Roman men of fame. Plutarch was born, and pursued a political career, in Chaeronea, a town in central Greece. (6) His works are filled with moral overtones, associating great triumphs with great character and failures with personal faults. (7) Like Plutarch, Arrian, a Bithynian who became a Roman senator whose consulship is dated to approximately 129 ACE, also wrote in the second century ACE. (8) Modern historians are still debating whether his history of Alexander constitutes one of his earlier or later works ...
Terms matched: 1  -  Score: 20  -  05 Mar 2003  -  67k  -  URL:
... the other hypotheses. No, this doesn't prove that my suggestion is right-- it merely goes to show that no one conversant with historical facts can (or must) reject it out of hand. (The record shows that Velikovsky made great efforts to address pertinent inquiries to leading scholars, usually-- but not always-- unsuccessfully so. Like myself, he was after scholarly knowledge, not establishment plaudits.) Cardona's own logic can be rather puzzling at times at least to me:"... the Roman Jupiter personified the planet Jupiter. By the same token, therefore [sic!, so must Indra." (Second emphasis only added.) Why? At the risk of being once more accused of "irrelevance" (surely one more time won't matter all that much), let me note that Odin was the chief Germanic deity, just as Jupiter was the chief god of the Romans. Since Jupiter personifies the chief planet of the same name, so "therefore" must Odin. Q.E.D. Alas! Odin ...
Terms matched: 1  -  Score: 20  -  05 Mar 2003  -  23k  -  URL:
... . Not one document mentions the rulers or events of the Neo-Babylonian period, while the stela from Babylon, as Velikovsky admits (p. 147) is from 9th century Aleppo, and is not a "contemporary Chaldaean document". Regarding his claim that the script was a "secret" one used by the Chaldaeans, why did all the inscriptions that use it record the ordinary wars and public works of the kinglets of Syria and south-eastern Anatolia? One question remains to be dealt with- the supposed silence of the Greek and Roman writers regarding the Hittites and their Empire. Velikovsky claims that Hittite hieroglyphics were used in Cappadocia as late as the Roman period, and that "the Chaldaeans, as Roman and Greek authors testify, were still present in Commogene and in Asia Minor till at least the first century of the present era" (p. 250), ergo the Chaldaeans were the real bearers of the culture usually dubbed "Hittite". However, no Greek or Roman author said that Chaldaeans lived in Commogene. The Chalybes (sometimes spelt Chaldaei ...
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... purpose is to demonstrate that such claims are much exaggerated and evidently rest on an inadequate knowledge of the foundations of the Assyro-Babylonian chronology. It will be shown that this chronology is fixed by aid of a series of documents that are quite independent of the solar eclipse of June 15, 763 BC, and that this eclipse merely provides an additional confirmation of a chronology that is wholly established on other grounds. "Ptolemy's Canon", or kinglist, beginning with the reign of Nabonassar in Babylon (747-733 BC) and ending with the Roman emperor Antoninus Pius (138-161 AD). [after F. K. Ginzel, Handbuch der Matematischen und technischen Chronologie, I, (Leipzig 1906), p.139 The Eponym Canon and Ptolemy's Canon When Sir Henri Rawlinson's translation of the eponym lists appeared in print in 1866, their importance for the fixing of the Neo-Assyrian chronology was immediately realised [4. It was pointed out that the limmu-list at several points could be linked up with and brought into chronological harmony with the Canon of Ptolemy- a list of kings and their ...
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108. Venus in Ancient Myth and Language [Aeon Journal $]
... while the Latin mythology might appear to have been lost, it actually persists in rudimentary form disguised as Latin history: "The Romans are not, after all, a people without mythology --as the textbooks, alas, still delight in characterizing them --but rather that, for them, mythology, and in fact a very ancient mythology in large part inherited from Indo-European times, while it has been destroyed at the level of theology, has prospered under the form of history." (10) Unfortunately, although Dumezil's two volume Archaic Roman Religion presents a masterful analysis of the comparative mythology associated with the Latin cults of Mars and Jupiter, it offers but a scant few paragraphs on the cult of Venus. Indeed it appears that Latin tradition may have failed to preserve its full share of the Indo-European heritage with respect to the goddess Venus. Traces of the lost mythology can yet be found, however, amidst the mythological traditions of other Indo-European peoples, which can then be fleshed out by comparison to analogous traditions from the ancient Near East and Mesoamerica. And as ...
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109. Velikovsky's "The Dark Age of Greece" [The Velikovskian $]
... and Hellenistic. The Helladic period includes the time of Mycenaean civilization and, according to the accepted chronology, ends not long after the fall of Troy c. 1200 BCE. A dark age of some 400 to 500 years is then thought to have divided Helladic Greece from the Ionian and classical ages, which mark the beginning of Hellenic Greece c. 700 BCE. The Hellenistic period begins c. 330 BCE with the advent of Alexander and the expansion of Greek culture eastward to India and southward to Egypt, and ends with the Roman conquest of Ptolemaic Egypt in 30 BCE. Most events in the Hellenic and Hellenistic periods are firmly anchored in time. However, the Helladic period --the time of the heroes of Homer's Iliad and Odyssey --supposedly has been cut loose from the anchor by the intervening "Dark Age." It is important to note that this age is not "dark" in the sense the term is used to describe Europe following the fall of Rome. That age was dark only in comparison to the centralized authority and culture of the Roman Empire ...
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110. Cosmic Catastrophism [Aeon Journal $]
... be committed to writing immediately after the events they describe took place (though that is an ideal situation for which every historian longs). However, if written accounts appeared only a considerable time after the events they narrate, the origin and accuracy of the traditions upon which the written versions are based should be discussed. A historian should find out as much as possible about the background and transmission of the sources he uses. Velikovsky generally ignores this fundamental principle of responsible historical scholarship. He often uses details from Jewish writings of the Roman and medieval periods to supplement descriptions found in the Bible written many hundreds of years earlier. (36) Yet he provides no arguments or reasons to persuade the reader that the authors of these relatively late writings had access to accurate historical traditions not included in the earlier biblical accounts. In fact, he also fails to question the accuracy of the biblical stories, themselves sometimes written centuries after the events they describe. On another occasion Velikovsky claims that Mexican Aztec legends about the ferocity of their war god originated in catastrophes of the ...
Terms matched: 1  -  Score: 20  -  05 Mar 2003  -  70k  -  URL:
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