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... It may be said to have been universal. Among nations the most remote from each other, from the torrid to the frigid zones, under one modification or another, this worship has existed. As Phre, or Serapis, among the Egyptians; as Bel, Baal, Belus, or Moloch, among the Chaldeans ; Mithras of the Persians; Apollo of the Greeks; Suyra of the Hindus; Odin of the Scandinavians; Baiwe of the Laplanders; or, as the chief object of adoration in Mexico and Peru, the sun has had its myriads of worshippers from the earliest dawn of tradition and history. Its worship spread over America as it did over Europe and Africa ...
102. Three Views of Heinsohn's Chronology [Journals] [SIS Workshop]
... to the minds of Egyptologists and Assyriologists alike. Why is the question of Thutmose III's teacher of Akkadian a problem at all? Because the Egyptians, like Hyksos and Old Hittites, could not bring themselves to use the West Semitic cuneiform of their immediate Martu predecessors who disappeared from history around 1600 BC and only re-emerged in Middle Assyrian' and Persian times, of the 13th and 6th centuries BC. The majority of the letters arriving at Amarna were written in an Akkadian a bit more developed than the Old Akkadian of the 24th century BC but, strangely enough, typologically more ancient, i.e ., less simplified than the "older" ' Old Babylonian (G . ...
103. Astronomical Dating and Calendrics [Journals] [Aeon]
... patriarch would have left a flourishing Mesopotamian city around 2100 BCE to acquaint himself with a similarly flourishing Egypt a few decades later. Following the elimination of Abraham as a historical figure- a process that commenced in the late 19th century and was only completed in the 70's of the 20th, when it was established that Abrahamic lore dates from the Persian period and later (6 )- historical chronology had to start from scratch. As far as Mesopotamia is concerned, the chronological materials now in use consist of the king-lists that are gradually being unearthed, without, however, the stratigraphical levels in which they are found always being identified. Abraham is hardly ever given a mention in the ...
104. The Chronology of Lyres [Journals] [Aeon]
... to India- because group three immediately follows the Mitanni and the 18th Dynasty (group two), and both are well represented not only by written sources but also by archaeological strata in Africa (Egypt-Hyksos in Tell el Daba) and Asia alike. This epigraphical-stratigraphical sequence, thus, allows for a chronological network stretching from the Nile to the Persian Gulf and beyond in the South-East and to Anatolia and beyond in the North-East. In addition, any excavation site with strata for Hyksos and/or Mitanni and/or Middle-Assyrians will receive absolute dates for its pre-Hyksos strata as well as for its post-Middle-Assyrian strata also via the absolute date of the Amarna correspondence. The impact of the Amarna-date ...
105. Astral Kingship [Journals] [Aeon]
... only upon those terrestrial vicars deemed worthy. Who were these planetary deities and why were they considered the dispensers of divine authority? With a choice of gods and a multitude of celestial bodies to choose from, why were Saturn, Jupiter, and Venus- with their respective representative divinities and festivals- the prime font of astral kingship? The Persian King of Kings When Cyrus the Great triumphantly entered Babylon in October 539 BC, he was welcomed with open arms and hailed as legitimate ruler by the populace within. This political achievement was due, in no small part, to the fact that Cyrus quickly paid thoughtful homage to the great god of Babylon- Marduk. "Not as ...
106. The Stratigraphy of Bahrein: An Answer to Critics [Journals] [Aeon]
... Sumerians did Not Exist)(1 ) was summarised by using the graphic below: TEXTBOOK ERAS FOR SOUTHERN MESOPOTAMIA Compressed to archaeologically existing and historically 1) Late Chaldaeans also comprise the "Empire Hittites" now dated -1450 to -1200. 2) The Assyrian Empire has another phantom in the "Old-Assyrians" or after -1950. 3) The Persian dominance also compromises the "Middle-Assyrians" now dated after the Mitanni. The latter are the Medes controlling Assyria's heartlands from -610 until their defeat by the Persians in -550. Via the Mitanni=Medes of the late 7th century B.C .E . the Amarna period becomes the anchor point for Egypt's chronology. I added to this ...
107. Timna and Egyptian Dates [Journals] [Aeon]
... the Monarchies. From a purely stratigraphic point of view, the Iron Age II period lasts well into the Akhaemenid period of the late 6th/early 5th century BCE ( For example, in the stratigraphy of Arad, the last Iron Age II-layer, Stratum VI, gets a termination date of 586 whereas the first and only layer designated "Persian", Stratum V, only begins in the later 5th century.) (20) Since no hiatus whatsoever was found between Arad VI and Arad V, the former belongs to late 6th/ early 5th century BCE rather than to the late 7th/early 6th century. The conventional beginning of Iron Age II around 1000 BCE is ...
108. Introduction - Ages in Chaos? [Journals] [SIS Review]
... Julius Africanus and Bishop Eusebius. In the 9th century, summaries derived from these earlier writers were given by George the Monk, also called Syncellus, who added material from the Book of Sothis, possibly by Manetho but generally viewed with suspicion [5 ]. In the Egyptian History, Manetho identified 31 dynasties of rulers, the 27th being Persian conquerors, as was the 31st, which was brought to an end by Alexander the Great of Macedon. For each dynasty, Manetho listed the individual kings, in chronological order, and gave the length of each reign. In the various surviving versions, the details were roughly the same but agreement was far from exact. Some kings ...
109. It's Time to Get Serious About Manetho [Journals] [SIS Review]
... . Dynasty XXI from Tanis (Vassal native) Group c. Dynasty XXII from Bubastis Dynasty XXIII from Tanis Dynasty XXIV from Sais Dynasty XXV from Napata Dynasty XXVI from Sais (pt) Dynasty XXVII from Persia (Libyan (? )) (Libyan (? )) (Libyan (? )) (Ethiopian) (Functionaries) (Persian) Group d. Dynasty XXVIII from Sais Dynasty XXIX from Mendes Dynasty XXX from Sebennytus (rebel native) (rebel native) (rebel native) When reviewed in the order displayed above, is it significant that although we arrive at a different conclusion, we find an exact match with the dynastic numerical sequencing system currently in vogue? ...
110. Reviews [Journals] [SIS Workshop]
... Akkadians, the Amorites, the Old Babylonians, and of course the Sumerians themselves. The weight of Heinsohn's argument therefore rests on the following identifications. The Sumerians themselves, who should date between c.1500 and c.500 BC are the alter-egos of the Chaldaeans: the Akkadians are simply the alter-egos of the Assyrians: the Amorites are Persians; and the Old Babylonians are Persians in Babylon. The detailed evidence presented by Heinsohn for each of these identifications is impressive, and we shall deal with each separately. The Sumerian/Chaldaean equation is particularly impressive, and well-argued. Heinsohn begins by quoting Strabo on the location of the southern Chaldaeans. These, according to the classical ...
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