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51. Society News [SIS C&C Workshop $]
... a pleasantly lengthy lunch hour to converse with others before we reconvened for the afternoon's lecture. With two slide projectors and a wealth of examples, mainly from Britain, our speaker, geologist Michael Garton, proceeded to attack the presumptions of the currently accepted geological timescale with a speed and vigour which ensured that those present will probably never look at a rock again without seeing catastrophe written upon its surface. Mr. Garton welcomed the recent swing back towards catastrophism but indicated that the basic problem of timescale was still with us. Ever since Lyell had proposed that the gradual geological processes we see today were the key to the past, and Darwin's evolution by natural selection seemed to require aeons of time for slow evolutionary change, the timescale had been ridiculously inflated and these preconceived ideas moulded how geologists saw things. Where rates of today's processes can be measured, such as the formation of the Dungeness headland and the erosion of the cliffs at Dover, geologists dictate conditions in the past by assuming the same constant rates. These two examples actually lead back only about 4000 years ...
52. For the Record. . . [Kronos $]
... ... Rapid adaptation is metamorphosis. By rapid adaptation to new environments some animals survived the repeated great extinctions that have periodically depopulated our globe. New species resulted. So it is that fossils found at the end of one epoch differ profoundly from those found at the beginning of the next. These are the leaps that correspond to the so-called 'gaps' in paleontology." Continuing, Lippman noted that "Man often tries to force data into molds that correspond to his actual experience. This is the basis of the gradualism of Lyell upon which Darwin based his hypothesis of evolution. This mode conformed to the philosophy of Newton, mechanical materialism. It held for a constant and invariable continuity of cause and effect. But, it omitted many facts, and did not settle the question of change itself. Change is intrinsically discontinuous." Lippman then pointed out the shortcomings of Newtonian philosophy in the modern day fields of physics and chemistry where discontinuity and complex transformations are highly prominent. "Thus, at every level of science below that of life, metamorphosis is ...
53. THE LATELY TORTURED EARTH: 1.Quantavolutions [Quantavolution Website]
... and the voice of religious and social authorities. We might have been granted different, or additional, heroes of science, too: the brave Spanish priests who rescued from certain destruction the iconography and writings of the original inhabitants of the Americas; astronomers like William Whiston who perceived an exoterrestrial cause for the Noachian deluge; anthropologists like Nicholas-Antoine Boulanger who recognized the symptoms of catastrophic fear in the history of religion; paleontologists such as Cuvier who discovered the layerings of catastrophe; anthropological-biological explorers like Humboldt who accorded respect to aboriginal accounts. Charles Lyell and his supporters thereupon might have had less success in dominating natural history --even allowing that they were riding on the crest of English world power, political power always being consciously or unconsciously imperialistic in the dissemination of ideas. Admittedly there is a world history of science to be written from the standpoint of the sociology of knowledge as a first step in the opening-up of thought upon quantavolution. We must nevertheless still provide in the here and now the evidence of catastrophes called for earlier. Fortunately and yet unfortunately, the here and now ...
54. A Comprehensive Theory on Aging, Gigantism and Longevity [Catastrophism & Ancient History Journal $]
... 1,000,000- 10,000 Recent 10,000- to date I. Gigantism in the Paleontological Record We are now ready to build the first of three legs under our thesis with an analysis of the fossil record. Since this essay departs rather drastically from the classical interpretation of time-- of counting years by the millions between sequences of strata-- a brief outline of the authors' reinterpretation of time is included. The accepted time column remains essentially "fossilized" or unchanged since the time of Charles Lyell, circa 1840-1850. It is divided into three macro-categories: Archaeozoic, Proterozoic, and Phanerozoic time. Phanerozoic time is the life-containing period and hence the period in which we are presently interested. Phanerozoic time is further subdivided into Paleozoic (paleo-- ancient; zoic-- Iife containing), Mesozoic (meso-- middle or intermediate), and Cenozoic (ceno-- recent) time. It is central here that the classical definition of these eras, each requiring hundreds of millions of years, be sharply discounted ...
55. The Flood [The Velikovskian $]
... ...Best of all, despite weathering, many of the smallest fossils were remarkably intact and will be easy to study....Assemblages comparable to these are virtually unknown in the Andes, since geological upthrusting generally destroys fossil beds. (84) Oyster shell beds like those found all across the southern part of the United States are also found in South America. These unfossilised shells share the same ground level as the fossilised whales. According to Charles H. Hapgood: Not long after the appearance of Cuvier's great work, Professor Charles Lyell was shown, in the Museum of the American Philosophical Society at Philadelphia, a block of limestone from Santas, in Brazil, obtained by Captain Elliott of the [United States Navy at about 1827. The block contained a human skull, teeth and other bones, together with fragments of shells, some of which still retained traces of their original colours. Remains of several hundred other human skeletons were dug out of similar...tufa at the same place, where the presence of serpulae [shells in the rock suggested that all ...
56. The Continuing Evolution of Evolution [SIS C&C Review $]
... . In general, the book is up-to-date and well-balanced. One passage, however, causes the hackles to rise: "At the beginning of the nineteenth century, the great French geologist and naturalist Baron Georges Cuvier proposed what came to be known as the Catastrophe theory, or Catastrophism. According to the theory, the abrupt faunal changes geologists saw in rock strata were the result of periodic devastations that wiped out all or most extant species, each successive period being repopulated with new kinds of animals and plants, by God's hand. Lyell rejected so nonscientific a hypothesis (as did James Hutton before him) and replaced it with the notion that geological processes proceeded gradually." Clearly the myth about the dichotomy between unscientific catastrophism and scientific gradualism in the nineteenth century still persists in some quarters. Trevor Palmer, 1994 \cdrom\pubs\journals\review\v1994\47evol.htm ...
57. The Organization of the Solar System [Aeon Journal $]
... 1859 Darwin's Origin of the Species Generation 6 1836 Lyell's Principles of Geology Generation 5 1795 Hutton's Theory of the Earth Generation 4 1784 La Place's Theorie du Mouvement de la Figure Elliptique des Planetes Generation 3 1755 Kant's General History of the Heavens Generation 2 1734 Swedenborg's Prodromus Philosophiae Generation 1 1712 The Halley-Swedenborg Breakfasts Immanuel Kant is usually given credit for the nebular hypothesis from his work published in 1755. He popularized the idea. From Kant's wellspring, cosmological water was drawn by Laplace, Buffon, Russell and others in astronomy, by Hutton and Lyell in geology and by Darwin in biology. But the credit for the origin of this hypothesis has been incorrectly attributed to Kant, who adapted it from Swedenborg, 20-some years after Swedenborg first published it in Latin, entitled Prodromus Philosophiae Ratiocinantis de Infinito et Cause Creationis, a rather lengthy title by 20th century standards. Swedenborg, like so many of the early scientists, was a minister's son, a member of the Lutheran Church Sweden. Young Swedenborg was interested in all branches of spreading scientific endeavor in those early days. His ...
58. Velikovsky and Catastrophism: A Hidden Agenda? [Aeon Journal $]
... Judaism and finally to the individual, we will be able to perceive that everything Velikovsky wrote-- his scientific and psychological books as well as his historical reconstructions-- may derive from one single over-riding impulse. This will place the entire Velikovsky story in a new light. To deduce Velikovsky's stance vis-a-vis Judaism, we begin with a number of conditions that exerted strong pressures upon him. The first and most obvious is the scientific climate that existed in Europe during the last half of the nineteenth century. In a word, if Lyell and Darwin were correct about the history of geology and biology, the Bible was false. If speculation about the size and age of the universe, the distances of stars and the structure of heavenly systems was correct, the Bible was false. To those who believed that science and mathematics would provide a mechanistic deterministic concrete description of all events and beings, the Bible was false. It therefore need hardly be said that anyone growing up in the first decades of the 20th century, exposed to current classical science and history, ...
59. Society News [SIS C&C Review $]
... our Chairman, Trevor Palmer, who presented his professorial lecture, delivered to an audience of non-catastrophists at Nottingham University the year before. The Fall and Rise of Catastrophism charted the history of ideas of catastrophism from original acceptance of geological evidence supporting biblical stories, through a period of rejection after Lyell's uniformitarian geology and Darwin's huge evolutionary time scales reinforced each other towards a completely gradualistic outlook and, finally, to the recent resurgence of catastrophism via the respectability of impact theories. All theories could be seen as products of their times. After Lyell and Darwin gradualism became so entrenched that even as late as 1993 catastrophism was still considered in some quarters as unscientific, despite there being no hard evidence for gradualism. All the geological evidence for sudden changes was submerged by theories of ice-ages, continental drift, earthquakes and volcanism taking place over long periods of time. Ideas of cosmic catastrophism were definitely not for consideration until the big break through of Alvarez and the C-T iridium layer. Even then another school of thought voted for massive endogenous volcanism as indicated by the Deccan traps. ...
60. Quantalism: The Big Picture [Aeon Journal $]
... will therefore take Victor Clube as representative of all three subtypes of non planetary catastrophism. [7 In terms of the preceding distinctions, some of which cross-cut one another, Velikovsky may be classified as a planetary caenocatastrophist. Recognizing, then, that catastrophism has many varieties, I am nonetheless dissatisfied with the term catastrophism as a blanket antonym to uniformitarianism (or uniformism, for short). For uniformism itself has at least two major conceptual components: gradualism and actualism. Gradualism is probably best represented by Charles Darwin's geological mentor, Charles Lyell. Actualism is perhaps best represented by Lyell's older contemporary, the German geologist Leopold von Buch. [8 Catastrophism, as I understand the term, should not be placed in opposition to uniformism generally, but only to one of its two components-- viz., actualism, which is the theory that the forces which shaped our planet and its inhabitants in the past are the same as those which are shaping it today. For the other component, gradualism, another antithesis should, I think, be postulated. The ...
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