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... for comparative purposes and to redirect reader attention to a most important subject which is treated with both keen perception and biting humor. The Hippopotamus The hippopotamus inhabits the larger rivers and marshes of Africa; it is not found in Europe or America save in zoological gardens where specimens of it wallow most of the time in pools, submerging their huge bodies in muddy water. Next to the elephant it is the largest of the land animals. Bones of hippopotami are found in the soil of Europe as far north as Yorkshire in England. Lyell gave the following explanation for the presence of the hippopotamus in Europe: "The geologist... may freely speculate on the time when herds of hippopotami issued from North African rivers, such as the Nile, and swam northward in summer along the coasts of the Mediterranean, or even occasionally visited islands near the shore. Here and there they may have landed to graze or browse, tarrying awhile, and afterwards continuing their course northward. Others may have swum in a few summer days from rivers in the south of Spain ...
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12. Catastrophist Geology [Catastrophism Geology $]
... From: Catastrophist Geology Year 1 No. 1 (June 1976) Home¦ Issue Contents Catastrophist Geology Han Kloosterman A magazine to be dedicated to the Study of discontinuities in Earth history Circulated among the participants of the Charles Lyell centenary symposium, London. Uniformitarianism holds that the processes governing the Earth's organic and inorganic past were the same as those apparent today, and that they operated then at the same intensity and rate as now. When they consider this definition thoughtfully, many geologists realize that they do not really agree with it. Too many events in the Earth's history do not fit a uniformitarian system- enormous calderas, plateau basalts, ice ages, alpine nappes, bone breccias, the sudden appearance of diversified life at the close of the Precambrian, the abrupt extinction of dinosaurs and ammonites, and so on. In a uniformitarian system the sedimentological and paleontological records are contradictory; if we assume uninterrupted sedimentation, we have to accept catastrophes in evolution; if we do not accept catastrophes in evolution we have to postulate major gaps in the sedimentary record. ...
Terms matched: 1  -  Score: 30  -  05 Mar 2003  -  9k  -  URL:
... a scientific, organizational, and political victory. One instance may be provided here to show that such was the case. A reading of accounts of efforts to discredit Velikovsky may serve to supplement this example. Incongruous though they may appear at first sight, the suppression of the word "stratum," an election of the Geological Society, and the downfall of the English Tories were at one moment in history tied together. A uniformitarian English activist of 150 years ago, George Scrope put the first two together in letters to Charles Lyell, which George Grinnell, historian of science, has published. Following Lyell's election as President of the Geological Society, Scrope wrote (April 12, 1831), "By espousing you, the conclaves have decidedly and irrevocably attached themselves to the liberal side... Had they on the contrary made their election of a Mosaic geologist like Buckland or Conybeare, the orthodox would immediately have taken their cue from them." Next year, Scrope was writing: It is great treat... that two thick volumes [ ...
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14. Comments [Catastrophism Geology $]
... like an exciting and necessary project. I wish you good fortune with it. John M.Bell Dept. of Humanities, New York University New York Uniformitarian catastrophes (for references see p.21) A growing misunderstanding regarding uniformitarianism as a basic concept in geology seems at present to develop due to confusion of causes, processes and results. The leaflet issued to announce the publication of this magazine is a good example. It starts by trying to define uniformitarianism in terms of 'processes' operating 'at the same intensity and rate as now'. Charles Lyell, whom we still may consider as the founder of the concept of uniformitarianism, was well aware of the difference between causes, and the resulting processes and effects observable to geologists. Already the subtitle of his Principles of Geology leaves no doubt that Lyell is dealing with causes. He must have realized that the sea-level oscillations beautifully shown by the pillars of the temple of Serapis (frontispiece of volume I) could well have been experienced as a catastrophe by the medieval Romans. Nevertheless they served Lyell as an excellent illustration of uniformitarian ...
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15. CHAOS AND CREATION: INTRODUCTION [Quantavolution Website]
... epochs, each with its own animals, each ended by great flood. In only the last of these ages, the present epoch, were men and living mammals present, stated Cuvier [3. He was here mistaken; hardly had he laid down his pen, when human remains were found alongside the bones of extinct mammoths. By contrast, the upcoming scientists of the last century argued that the world's history was long and evolutionary. On their side were those who were to become the treasured ancestors of science today- Charles Lyell (1795-1875) in geology, Charles Darwin (1809-1882) in biology, Pierre-Simon Laplace (1749- 1827) in astronomy, and Lewis H. Morgan (1818-1881) as well as the versatile communist, Friedrich Engels (1820-1895), in sociology and anthropology. The new group came to dominate scientific circles and scientific thought. The catastrophists disappeared from the scientific mind save as an old enemy. The victors advanced the principle of uniformitarianism. Their minions scorned the catastrophists. In the words of Charles Lyell, "the ancient ...
Terms matched: 1  -  Score: 16  -  03 Apr 2004  -  20k  -  URL:
... and mystery plays of antiquity follow the model of the Deluge and the great revolutions of the terrestrial crust'. [1 Nicolas-Antoine Boulanger [2 (1722-1759), who left us this statement, was a geologist, sociologist and civil engineer [3. For Diderot's Encyclopaedie he wrote the entries Déluge, Corvée and Société. The evolutionist dogma of an extremely slow, peaceful and uniformitarian development of cosmos and earth was still something for the future though no longer entirely absent from the scientific community [4. The devastating impact of Charles Lyell [5 had not yet been felt. Students did not yet have to know by heart the new credo: 'All theories are rejected which involve the assumption of sudden and violent catastrophes and revolutions of the whole earth' [6. Even George Cuvier's masterpiece of catastrophist geology [7, which Lyell wanted to wipe off the realm of scholarship, was not yet conceived. Lyell's master disciple Charles Darwin was not born until forty-four years after Boulanger's insight. Darwin's own Darwinism even had to wait until 1859 [8 to be made ...
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17. Catastrophic Theory of Mountain Uplifts (A Crustal Deformation Theory) [Catastrophism & Ancient History Journal $]
... and Kant, came up with the idea of gradualism, or "uniformity" in geology. Opposing catastrophism, he wrote: No powers are to be employed that are not natural to the globe, no action to be admitted except those of which we know the principle. In great error, Hutton viewed the Earth in isolation from the rest of the solar system. In this sense he was an Earth isolationist. He was not concerned with either astronomical data or with catastrophic heritages contained in ancient literatures. In the 1830's Charles Lyell popularized the dogma of Hutton. Lyell's, and Huxley's, popular "one-liner" became "The present is the key to the past." In his Principles of Geology Lyell attempted to define geology as the following: Principles of geology, being an attempt to explain the former changes of the earth's surface by reference to causes now in operation. 9 [emphasis added Even as early as the 1730's, in the celestial realm, gradualism, or uniformitarianism, was spawned in the mind of Immanuel Swedenborg, although the term " ...
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18. Catastrophism and Evolution [SIS C&C Review $]
... upon by creationists, in an attempt to make the growing evidence of the fossil record compatible with Archbishop Ussher's calculated date of creation, 4004 BC. Such a short timescale certainly required catastrophes to wipe out the animals no longer found living on the Earth, but known from their fossilised remains. So catastrophism tended to become equated with unscientific creationism, particularly in view of Cuvier's belief that the catastrophes could not have been caused by any natural forces still in existence [17. In response, the scientific community tended to unite behind Charles Lyell and his principle of uniformitarianism, i.e. that natural laws do not change [18. Hence, if the presumed large-scale catastrophes could not be explained by any known processes, then there could not have been any large-scale catastrophes. All the findings in the rocks could be explained on the basis of known processes, provided these were given long enough in which to act. So the uniformitarian position required the Earth to be very old, to enable changes to take place by gradual rather than catastrophic means. Charles Darwin, under ...
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... sudden disappearance of most plant and animal species from one rock layer to the next-- it was an attempt to explain the existence of different rock strata and the unique fossil forms from layer to layer within a religious framework.(7) Although the father of vertebrate paleontology, Cuvier himself rejected both geological uniformitarianism and the theory of biological evolution. In geology, uniformitarianism and catastrophism are not mutually exclusive theoretical frameworks and both may incorporate the evolutionary viewpoint. In his three-volume work The Principles of Geology (1830-1833), Sir Charles Lyell gave both empirical evidence and logical arguments to support the theory of geological uniformitarianism. Although this theory was first presented in the writings of James Hutton, Lyell is held to be the father of modern geology. Ironically, he was never to accept the theory of human evolution. In fact, it is not clear whether Lyell ever did seriously consider as true the evolution of plants and nonhuman animals.(8) By the middle of the last century, the major works of Charles Robert Darwin established evolutionary biology on a firm ...
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... held during the past decade in Toronto, New York, and Paris. And there is now a Language Origirls Society, headquartered in the Netherlands, whose members come from many of the academic linguistic programs of Europe and North America. What it was that led to the writing of this book remains unclear. Overall, the volume seems to be little more than a sketch of the development of linguistic science from the early 1 9th to the late 20th century. Nonetheless, the author's frequent reference to paleontologists and geologists like Cuvier and Lyell strongly suggest that he wanted it to be more. If so, he seems to me to have fallen far short of his goal. In any case, there is regrettably little here in the way of new information or original insight, either for linguists or for catastrophists. REFERENCES 1. Gordon W. Hewes, "Language in Early Hominids," in Language Origins, edited by Roger W. Wescott, Linstok Press, Silver Spring, MD, 1974. 2. Charles F. Hockett, "The Origin of ...
Terms matched: 1  -  Score: 15  -  05 Mar 2003  -  4k  -  URL:
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