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... days too short, while thirteen lunar months are 18 days too long.[1 The numbers 11 and 12 play a prominent role in Homeric, Pythagorean, and Socratic thought- in fact, in Western culture generally. But try to find the numbers 13 and l& This corroborates what is already known of Western calendar-making, which since Mesopotamia and Egypt has always favored the 12month year. Interestingly, the pre-Columbian cultures in Mexico and Central America have shown a no less demonstrable affinity for 13 and 18, suggesting quite a different calendar orientation. This indicates the role of number as artifact and underscores the need for prehistorians to become aware of its significance. Literally all pre-Columbian lore celebrates the number 13- a number clearly not thought to be unlucky in early Central America. It was combined with the vigesimal 20 (the Mayans counted toes as well as fingers) to make the unusual 260-day ritual calendar. The 360-day "round yea? was reached, on the other hand, by multiplying 20 and 18. Thus both of the superfluity numbers cited by Smith ...
Terms matched: 1  -  Score: 150  -  05 Mar 2003  -  17k  -  URL:
... very much how farms work. The second is for religious reasons, to establish the succession of feasts for the gods of the time. The third is for administrative reasons, which means for the official feasts, for chronology, etc. And the fourth reason is precisely to establish historical chronology, because notwithstanding the kings dated their reigns from the first year that they came into power; nevertheless they were establishing a chronology of their forefathers, and to try to show how powerful and how intelligent their forefathers were. To establish a calendar, which means to make a computation of time, one needs some starting points. Those starting points are generally celestial bodies; the Moon, the Sun, or the stars. Those are the three which have been used throughout history, and when you do that you establish what is commonly called a calendar. The year which results of that, the calendar year, is then subdivided into periods- months, weeks, etc.- that's a question of detail into which I am not going to go. If we ...
Terms matched: 1  -  Score: 148  -  05 Mar 2003  -  32k  -  URL:
... Studies. [2 Subsequent to that presentation, the paper was expanded to contain the many other data that could not be presented in the allotted time. Unfortunately, the expanded paper was too long for the Society's Review, so it was sent to AEON and TheVelikovskian. Following some correspondence and despite some alterations which were suggested by Professor Lynn Rose, The Velikovskian rejected the article. The paper was then re-submitted to AEON. The editor, however, only saw fit to publish that section of the paper which dealt with the Mosaic calendar. [3 The content of that paper then drew the wrath of Lisa Liel, [4 to which I responded [5 together with additional support by Dale Murphie, [6 all of which appeared in a subsequent edition of AEON. There the matter has rested. The additional information that I deemed worthy of consideration has not yet been published and remains, la Ashton, in the Attic. Part of my additional information relies on a paper by Livio Stecchini [7 that gives the changing lunar orbits necessary for the ...
Terms matched: 1  -  Score: 140  -  09 Jan 2005  -  25k  -  URL:
... calibration explains.(1) The amount of C-14 available is influenced by geography, and this places doubt on the accuracy of the method.* Thus, it is important that we investigate the seven astronomical benchmarks listed in Table I. It is the purpose of this paper to examine the records and comment on their contribution to absolute dating. [* See I. Velikovsky, "The PitfaUs of Radiocarbon Dating", Pensee IV (Spring-Summer, 1973 pp. 12ff.-- The Ed Egypt possessed a 365 day civil calendar:** 3 seasons, each containing 4 months or 12 months of 30 days with 5 epagomenal days at the beginning of the year. Being 1/4 day short every year or an entire day every 4 years the calendar corrected itself in accordance with the seasons only once in approximately 1460 revolutions of the earth around the sun (actually 1460 Julian calendar years and 1461 Egyptian calendar years). The relevancy of the seven citations in Table I is dependent on the assumption that the Egyptians never altered the calendar throughout their ...
Terms matched: 1  -  Score: 140  -  05 Mar 2003  -  42k  -  URL:
35. Ancient Calendars [SIS C&C Workshop $]
... . The time to tax people is when the harvest has just come in; late harvest, late taxes. How can the new moon, far less an eclipse of the Sun, assist in that process? History is not well served by astronomical time-keeping as far as the count of years is concerned, since the seasons or days will do the job. Astronomical processes are generally cyclical. We must also beware of a circular argument here: before chronology, what prompted a king or priest to say, "We need a calendar"? Can the question be framed in terms which do not presuppose the idea it is intended to explain? Neolithic man's conception of time appears to have been basically cyclic, then [2. It is well known that early European religions were often based on Sun or Moon worship. (There are also fertility cults- which have a seasonal basis, and a lunar link through menstruation,- and totemic systems. The almost indisputable significance of most megalithic monuments is a primary solar or lunar alignment. It has become a ...
Terms matched: 1  -  Score: 135  -  05 Mar 2003  -  18k  -  URL:
... it had been noted that the Nile began to rise with special rapidity about the same time when Sirius, after having been invisible for a prolonged period, was first again observed in the sky shortly before sunrise... this latter event, described by modern astronomers as the heliacal rising of Sirius, and by the 'going up of Sirius', came to be regarded as the true New Year's Day (f-wpt-rnpt), the day with which 'first month of Inundation (the first season), day one' of the civil calendar ought always to have coincided. We have it on the authority of Censorinus that heliacal rising and civil New Year's Day did so coincide in AD139, and thence it is calculated that similar coincidences must have occurred in 1317 and 2773BC'. Thus speaks the Oracle- and for pure corporate speculation, it takes the biscuit. However my researches show it to be entirely true... The Tale of the Patient Egyptian Once upon a time, long ago in Egypt, there was a young lad called An, who was ...
Terms matched: 1  -  Score: 120  -  05 Mar 2003  -  12k  -  URL:
37. Sun, Moon, and Sothis [SIS Internet Digest $]
... From: SIS Internet Digest 1999:2 (Oct 1999) Home¦ Issue Contents Sun, Moon, and Sothis Sun, Moon, and Sothis: A Study of Calendars and Calendar Reforms in Ancient Egypt. A book by Lynn E. Rose. The history, of calendars is far from cut-and-dried. Almost every topic that this book addresses has long been the subject of heated controversy. Rose sees Hellenistic and Roman Egypt as of unparalleled importance in the history of calendar development. Even the Julian calendar had its origins in Hellenistic Egypt. Very likely, the Julian calendar itself was Sothic-- that is, designed to follow the movements of the star Sothis (Sirius), and not just the annual motion of the Sun. Since the traditional Egyptian calendar of 365 days fell about one-fourth of a day short of the natural year, the ancients assumed that the heliacal rising of Sirius would move through the Egyptian calendar in 365 x 4= 1460 Julian years (that is, one Sothic peniod). ...
Terms matched: 1  -  Score: 120  -  05 Mar 2003  -  4k  -  URL:
38. Further Thoughts On Time [SIS C&C Workshop $]
... From: SIS Workshop No. 3 (Nov 1978) Home¦ Issue Contents Further Thoughts On Time by Mike Rowland MICHAEL Reade's interesting article on the perplexities of Man's relationship with time (WORKSHOP No. 2) prompts me to suggest other lines of thought, particularly with regard to the present-day calendar. It is often true that children have much more difficulty grasping the machinations of the calendar than they do the clock. A superficial glance would suggest a total lack of logic about the calendar, thus the need for the rhyme: "Thirty days hath September, April, June and November...." etc. The Americans had a two -day holiday this year to celebrate Independence because July 4th fell on a Tuesday. Similarly, there is often a muddle about Christmas and New Year Holidays. But is the calendar illogical? If we momentarily ignore January and February and start the year on March 1st, the remaining ten months show a very clearly defined pattern:¦ (1) MARCH.... .31...DECEMBER ( ...
Terms matched: 1  -  Score: 120  -  05 Mar 2003  -  4k  -  URL:
... From: SIS Chronology& Catastrophism Review 1996:2 (May 1997) Home¦ Issue Contents Relation Between the Perpetual Calendar Based on the 128 Years Cycle and the Central American Calendar by Flavio Barbiero Flavio Barbiero was born in Pula (Croatia) and is a Captain of the Italian Navy. He graduated as an electronics engineer at Pisa University in 1978 and has worked in Research Centres of the Italian Navy and now works at NATO. He has wide cultural and eclectic interests and has managed to reconcile Service with other professional activities as explorer, archaeologist, writer and lecturer. He is a member of the Italian Scientific Institute 'Centro Camuno di Studi Preistorici', (CCSP- see web pages), a close cooperator with Prof. Anati, and participates in archaeological expeditions in Israel, to Har Karkom, a holy mountain in the Negev desert identified with the Biblical Mount Sinai. He organized and led two expeditions to Antarctica, contributing to the present Italian commitment in that continent with writings and lectures. He has written several books in Italian on different subjects ...
Terms matched: 1  -  Score: 114  -  05 Mar 2003  -  22k  -  URL:
... (the day of Quetzalcoatl's birth, and the day of the same god-king's death), the rising of Venus is deadly: "It shoots the kings," the texts say. Notice here that an underlying logic is at work, running from the specific to the general, from the archetype to the symbol. Quetzalcoatl died at a critical moment in cosmic history, a moment signified by both the end and the beginning of the time-reckoning cycle, mythically the end of one world age and the beginning of another. In the calendar system and in the sacred rites, the cyclical principle established by the life and death of Quetzalcoatl is both repeated and generalized: as above, so below; as before, so again. Hence, kings will die on the day One Reed, the day that Quetzalcoatl's heart-soul departed to become the planet Venus. What, then, is the significance of the fact that the symbolism of Venus replicates so precisely the global symbolism of the comet? The new appearance of Venus as morning star is a moment of great peril for ...
Terms matched: 1  -  Score: 112  -  21 Mar 2007  -  31k  -  URL:
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