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21. Sun, Moon, and Sothis: A Study of Calendars and Calendar Reforms in Ancient Egypt by Lynn E. Rose [Aeon Journal $]
... From: Aeon V:5 (Jan 2000) Home¦ Issue Contents Sun, Moon, and Sothis: A Study of Calendars and Calendar Reforms in Ancient Egypt by Lynn E. Rose (Kronos Press: Deerfield Beach, Florida 1999) Reviewed by Frederic Jueneman This book isn't for everyone, as it heavily concentrates on the minutiae of calendrical detail that perhaps only a mathematician or historical specialist in such matters could fully appreciate or even conditionally respect. It is, without doubt, a superbly scholarly book. But what a hoot! I don't believe that I've ever read a book quite like this one, only half understanding what the author has to offer, but nevertheless thoroughly enjoying the manner in which it is being said. As it is, Lynn Rose, professor emeritus of philosophy at SUNY Buffalo, goes to great pains to make his points absolutely and unequivocally clear, often reiterating the particulars for emphasis-- without that nagging feeling of redundancy many other authors who tend to repeat themselves give the readership. We are given a description of the ...
... From: Kronos Vol. XI No. 1 (Fall 1985) Home¦ Issue Contents An Evaluation of the Practical Operation of the Stonehenge Calendar Benjamin A. Bosher I found Alban Wall's paper, "A Calendric View of Stonehenge" (KRONOS VIII:2, Winter 1983, pp. 35-46), to be a well thought-out solution that the functional use of Stonehenge was that of an accurate solar and lunar calendar. His explanation of the use of the horseshoe of 19 Bluestones to keep track of the 19-year cycle adds significantly to the search for the full solution to the riddle of Stonehenge, as does his explanation of the five Trilithons to divide the lunar month into six equal parts and thereby track the Moon's phases. However, in presenting his theory of the calendric capability of this ancient stone edifice, he, quite naturally, emphasizes the sophisticated line-ups of the three marker stones at each quarter period of the 19-year cycle, while glossing over the meticulous intercalation of 7 lunations and extra days necessary to keep the Stonehenge calendar chronologically aligned with the orbiting ...
... . The book may be obtained by writing to the publisher at the following address: P.O. Box 70, 182-184 High Holborn, London WCIV 7AX.- LMG This date is based on the work of Parker (1950) and Neugebauer (1938). Examination of the facts, however, shows that the date rests on certain very doubtful assumptions, and that there is absolutely no evidence at all for a Sothic cycle having had any effect on the ancient Egyptians. It is assumed by Parker (a) that a lunar calendar existed (which is a quite reasonable assumption since all primitive peoples recognise the lunar cycle, which, however, repeats itself every 25 years ); (b) that the Egyptians, after years of observation and written records, introduced a civil calendar (in Parker's opinion in c. 2937 BC) which at its introduction was NOT tied to the heliacal rising of Sothis; (c) that since the first day of the civil year had come to be the date of the rising of Sothis in c. 2773 BC ...
24. Making Moonshine with Hard Science [Kronos $]
... have involved the moon in changed behaviors. Neither of these is demonstrated, and indeed, Michelson indicates later on that both implications are unnecessary to his story of Meton. Michelson further presumes that 250 years are not long enough for a changed lunar month to be noticed or calculated, but offers no argument on the point. What Michelson does ultimately argue is that by 432 B.C. (255 years after the presumed last Mars disaster), a four-digit lunar cycle calculation would have been sufficiently accurate to permit the design of a 19-year calendar involving an intercalation of moon and sun, granted of course,,the sun's 365.25 figure was known (as he takes for granted and I would not oppose) and provided that anyone cared about the matter. This is a useful line of inquiry, no matter how deviously pursued. It can help us understand what was going on in those days. What was going on? I hope that I may be forgiven for presenting some fictional excerpts from the recently recovered journal of Kakrates, research assistant to the astronomer Meton, ...
25. The Great Comet Venus [Aeon Journal $]
... remembered by the Aztecs as a former great king and founder of the golden age, or a former sun god ruling a primordial epoch, Quetzalcoatl was a cultural hero without equal in the Aztec pantheon, his countenance adorning temple walls and the stucco bases of pyramids, painted on countless frescoes and codices, and engraved on sarcophagi and monoliths strewn across Mexico. The climactic event in the Quetzalcoatl myth is the god's catastrophic death and transformation in an overwhelming disaster-- an event endlessly repeated in sacrificial rites and supplying the cornerstone of Aztec calendar rituals and astronomical symbolism. In a pervasive version of the myth, at the death of Quetzalcoatl the god's heart or soul rose in the sky as a great spark or ember, trailing smoke and fire-- a "star" whose fiery train the Aztecs portrayed as the streaming tail of a quetzal-bird. Was this flaming star a "comet"? One notes that the Quiché Maya called a comet uje ch'umil, "tail of the star," (29) and Aztec artists often drew comets as stars with quetzal ...
26. Michelson And Meton [Kronos $]
... From: Kronos Vol. I No. 3 (Fall 1975) Home¦ Issue Contents Michelson And Meton Lynn E. Rose This paper is a review of a column by Professor Irving Michelson (" Scientifically Speaking...", subtitled "19-Year Lunar Calendar Cycle: Accurate Adjustment to 365 1/4-Day Civil Calendar", Pensee, Winter, 19741975, pages 50-52); it will also serve as an introduction to the paper by Professor Alfred de Grazia and to the paper by Professor Livio Stecchini that immediately follow in this issue of KRONOS. In his column, Professor Michelson discusses the considerable precision with which such quantities as the mean synodic month of 29.530589 days can be measured. He says that this eight-digit precision "stands as an elegant tribute to the 'hard sciences' at their best" (page 50). He repeatedly offers the suggestion-- but never presents any evidence or arguments-- that such precision is incompatible with any radical changes of planetary or lunar orbits within historical times. Why he offers this suggestion is never explained ...
27. On Number As Artifact: Part 2: Development [Horus $]
... the Chinese, with their hypothetical musical scales based on simple ratios, yet at the same time sophisticated acoustical computations based on principles of set theory. Modern mathematicians, finding the symbolic numbers and assuming their use in practical arithmetic, jumped at false conclusions about the ancients. Further, modern writers on the history of science have been impatient with the delight of the ancients in symbolic speculation, a delight which they did not understand and did not want to understand.[1 There are many examples of symbolic number speculation with regard to calendar systems, despite the obvious pragmatic purpose of the calendar respecting agriculture and other seasonal activities. In the first installment we mentioned the sidereal month of between 27 and 28 days- not a 'month' in the usual sense of the complete cycle of lunation, but rather in terms of the moon's position in the starry firmament. Did this figure in ancient calendar lore? There is every evidence that it did. R.T. Zuidema, an authority on Inca political and social systems, believes the Incas "had a complicated system of ...
28. Velikovsky's 360 days/year calendar [SIS Internet Digest $]
... From: SIS Internet Digest 1996:2 (Feb 1997) Home¦ Issue Contents Newsgroups: sci.archaeology Velikovsky's 360 days/year calendar From: Ykon, firstname.lastname@example.org Date: Thu, 18 Apr 1996 13:45:40 +0900 Recently I've read Japanese translation of the "Fingerprint of the Gods". I was felt this is very interesting readings. And also I thought arguments in this book is something look like Velikovsky's "World in Collision". I hardly say which part is same but they are same kind of thinking on ancient catastrophic event such as "Water Flood" myth. I know Velikovsky's argument is very dangerous one and his theory is not welcomed to the most of Archaeologist and/or Astronomer. But even if most of his arguments are wrong, I feel some part of his idea is, as if, true. For instance, at chapter 8, he says most of ancient (< BC.1500) people used calendars which are all counted 360 days a year. Some archaeologist concluded ancient people used the 360 calendar ...
29. Astronomy and Chronology [Pensee]
... Historians, however, believe they have astronomical evidence to determine the numerical values for the basic plan. No records of solar and lunar eclipses were found in Egypt, as they were in Babylonia (9). The Sothic period, a computation based on the rising of the star Sothis (Spdt in Egyptian), or Sirius, became the alpha and omega for the numerical construction of Egyptian chronology. The Egyptian year, for a considerably long period of history consisted of 360 days; at some date in history, in a calendar reform, five days were added to the year. Under the Ptolemies another reform was contemplated, that of introducing a leap year every four years. In -238, in the ninth year of Ptolemy III Euergetes, a priestly decree was published in the Delta; in the last century it was found in Tanis and is known as the Canopus Decree by the place where the conclave reforming the calendar had taken place. It was composed, like the Rosetta Stone, in Greek, in hieroglyphic Egyptian and in demotic Egyptian --and, ...
30. Chapter XXVII: The Calendar and its Revision [Dawn of Astronomy (Book)] [Books]
... Chapter XXVII The Calendar and its Revision IN the last chapter the so-called Sothic cycle was discussed, and dates of the commencement of the successive cycles were suggested. These dates were arrived at by taking the very simplest way of writing a calendar in pre-temple times, and using the calendar inscriptions in the most natural way. The dates for the coincidence of the heliacal rising of Sirius and the 1st Thoth of the vague year at, or near, the solstice, were 270 B.C. 1728 B.C. 3192 B.C. Here, in limine, we meet with a difficulty which, if it cannot be explained, evidently proves that the Egyptians did not construct and use their calendar in the way we have supposed. We have it on the authority of Censorinus that a Sothic period was completed in 139 A.D., and that there was then a vague year in partial use. It is here that the work of Oppolzer is of such high value to us, he discussed all the statements made by Censorinus, and comes to the conclusion that his account is ...
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