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515 results found.
52 pages of results.
131. The Orientation of the Pyramids [Pensee]
... or precede, or should the sun rise too far or not far enough to the north or to the south on the solstices, the order of the world was no more the same. Actually, the very numerous cuneiform tablets found in the ruins of the Nineveh royal library, and if dating from before ca. -700, contain calendric and astronomical data that differ greatly from those of our times; that advanced mathematics was employed in preparing these tablets is readily admitted by specialists in Babylonian astronomy. According to these tablets, the calendar was repeatedly altered, and at certain periods the vernal equinox was identified on dates far removed from March 21st; the values for the longest and shortest days (daylight hours) of the year repeatedly and drastically changed, too. Significantly, the very same changes in the calendar and in estimates of the longest and shortest days of the year can be traced in Egyptian texts. Changes in the world order took place as late as the 8th century before the present era. With the recurrent alterations in the world order, the ...
132. NASA Astrophysics Data System Abstracts [SIS Internet Digest $]
... From: SIS Internet Digest 2002:2 (Dec 2002) Home¦ Issue Contents NASA Astrophysics Data System Abstracts Calendar Observatory for the 21st Century B. Steinrücken, T. Morawe and R. Vanscheidt in Astronomische Gesellschaft Abstract Series, Vol. 17. Abstracts of Contributed Talks and Posters presented at the Annual Scientific Meeting of the Astronomische Gesellschaft at Bremen, September 18-23, 2000. In ancient times the calibration of astronomical observations with respect to the local physical horizon provided the possibility to adjust calendar data with high accuracy according to the apparent movement of the sun, the moon and the stars. [..Of astronomical relevance are empirical tests to determine the exact position of the lunar standstill without any knowledge of the heliocentric paths, nodes, and time of declination maximum. Archaeoastronomy and Aratus' Phaenomena S. V. Zhitomirsky (Moscow University) in Astronomical and Astrophysical Transactions 1998 Vol 15, pp. 293-294. The astronomically determined dates of Phaenomena's origin are surprising ancient (about 2000 B.C). The contents of the poem, however, refer to ...
133. Fomenko is right! [SIS C&C Review $]
... they claim that Fomenko and Nosovsky 'are undoubtedly guilty of circular reasoning over the question of AD dates'. One of the basic conclusions of Fomenko's work is that the theologians and chronologists of the 16th-17th century 'AD' created the present 'traditional' chronology of the 'western world' and they did this from chronological material which covered no more than the previous 500-700 years. Thus, as Fomenko claims, the Anglo-Saxon Chronicle could not have been written before the 16th century 'AD' precisely because it uses the 'AD' system of the 'Christian' Calendar which first came into use at that time. This claim is based on the mathematical and statistical analysis done by Fomenko et al described in their book. In effect, then, the Palmers assume that Fomenko's theory must be wrong and set out to show us how wrong it must be with ringing phrases such as 'the overwhelming view of historians' (how does a historian overwhelm?) and 'the mass of supporting evidence for the traditional scheme'. (Where is it? Fomenko shows that the overwhelming majority of 'ancient' ...
134. Chapter XXV: the Vague and the Sirian Years [Dawn of Astronomy (Book)] [Books]
... Year, because, if 365 days had exactly measured the year, that flash of bright sunlight would have fallen into the sanctuary just as it did 365 days before. But what they must have found was that, after an interval of four years, it did not fall on the first day of the month, but on the day following it. The true year and the newly-established year of 365 days, then, behaved to each other as shown in the following diagram, when the solstice, representing the beginning of the calendar year, occurred on the 1st Thoth of the newly-established calendar year. We should have, in the subsequent years, the state of things shown in the diagram. The solstice would year by year occur later in relation to the 1st of Thoth. The 1st of Thoth would occur earlier, in relation to the solstice; so that in relation to the established year the solstice would sweep forwards among the days: in relation to the true year the 1st of Thoth would sweep backwards. Let us call the true natural year ...
135. Ancient Wisconsin Astronomers [Science Frontiers Website]
... Science Frontiers ONLINE No. 34: Jul-Aug 1984 Issue Contents Other pages Home Page Science Frontiers Online All Issues This Issue Sourcebook Project Sourcebook Subjects Ancient Wisconsin Astronomers Prof. James Scherz claims to have discovered an ancient Indian calendar site in a marshy region near Wisconsin Rapids, Wisconsin. Scherz was led to the site by aerial photographs taken during a wetlands mapping program. Strange "islands" of higher land seen within the bog were found, upon terrestrial inspection, to be unusually steep, possibly artificial. Some were round, some four-sided; others were shaped like a fish, a rabbit, and a snake. [Wisconsin has many similar "effigy mounds" elsewhere.Causeways connect some of these so-called islands. The most interesting features of the islands, however, are prominent rocks and rock cairns. Braving hordes of mosquitoes and ticks, Scherz and an assistant mapped the islands, cairns, and rocks to determine if any astronomical alignments existed. Sure enough, the solstices and equinoxes were predictable from some of the alignments. Another alignment provided the site's latitude ...
136. Chapter I: The Worship of the Sun and the Dawn [Dawn of Astronomy (Book)] [Books]
... the heavenly bodies in all the regions we have named may very fairly be divided into three perfectly distinct stages. I do not mean to say that these stages follow each other exactly, but that at one period one stagee was more developed than another, and so on. For instance, in the first stage, wonder and worship were the prevalent features; in the second, there was the need of applying the observation of celestial phenomena in two directions, one the direction of utility-- such as the formation of a calendar and the foundation of years and months; and the other the astrological direction. Supplied as we moderns are with the results of astronomical observation in the shape of almanacs, pocket-books, and the like, it is always difficult, and for most people quite impossible, to put ourselves in the place and realise the conditions of a race emerging into civilisation, and having to face the needs of the struggle for existence in a community which, in the nature of the case, must have been agricultural. Those would best succeed ...
137. Greek Estimates of the Synodic Month [Kronos $]
... observations could have been made simply by recording at each summer solstice how much sooner was the preceding new moon and how much later was the following new moon. In a few years one could arrive at a good datum for the length of lunar month. It is true that in marking the date of new moons there was a constant danger of erring by a day, but in the long run these errors would even out and the very development of luni-solar calendars would call the errors to attention. Several cultures adopted independently the Metonic calendar, because calendars were used not only to regulate political and economic activities, but also to record the occurrence of eclipses. The date of eclipses was not a matter of mere scientific interest and the ability to predict them had great social value. With the Metonic calendar, the good recording of eclipses and their prediction became an elementary operation. Eclipses repeat themselves according to the same pattern after 223 lunar months, that is, about 18 solar years and 11 days. They occur in the same part of the sky in three ...
138. Appendices [The Age of Velikovsky] [The Age of Velikovsky] [Books]
... said: "The mere figures are of no interest save to the verifier," so they were not included. 19 First we went from a computer program and programmers who cannot be found, to hand calculations which were never shown to anyone. It is apparent from reading Totten's book that the missing day story is an updated version of Totten's prevarication. The modern touch of NASA, computer and scientists replaced the less believable situation in the Totten book. To perform a calculation of the type Totten claims to have performed, accurate calendar points before and after the event would be required. If you had an accurate calendar, you would not need to perform the calculations. If you used astronomical data before and after the event, you would need very exact data, but none exists. To do his calculations, Totten assumed he knew exactly how long ago the Earth started and worked from then to the present. He noted that scientists complained that he needed to start at the present and work backward and have his theory fit known eclipses and other data, ...
139. "In Search of Ancient Astronomies": A Review [Kronos $]
... the directions of many of the measured alignments, it is clear that not every alignment appears to have an astronomical match which we can recognise. It may be that only some of the sighting possibilities we have discussed were functional. Moreover, our search for significant astronomical events to match the alignments has included only those which seem of obvious importance to us: solar, lunar and planetary extremes and the setting positions of the brightest stars which announce, through their heliacal rising and setting, important dates in the civil, religious or agricultural calendar.''(5) Perhaps Aveni should have pondered the implications of his own statement. Does he not find it surprising that, given this plethora of azimuthal directions, he was unable to correlate all of his alignments? Proponents of archaeoastronomy have offered such a vast number of astronomical events purportedly utilised by the ancients that it is usually virtually impossible not to fit some event to any postulated alignment and then regard this coincidence as significant. One example suffices. At Building J, Monte Alban, Aveni detected an alignment of ...
140. Stone Alignments In Subsaharan Africa [Science Frontiers Website]
... Science Frontiers ONLINE No. 4: July 1978 Issue Contents Other pages Home Page Science Frontiers Online All Issues This Issue Sourcebook Project Sourcebook Subjects Stone Alignments In Subsaharan Africa Megalithic sites are found everywhere; many were apparently used for calendar reckoning. Although numerous megalithic circles and other arrangements are known in Africa, particularly Ethiopia, astronomy does not seem to have been a primary objective of African sites. Now, however, a stone alignment in northwestern Kenya called Namoratunga has been found with unmistakable astronomical overtones. At Namoratunga, 19 large basalt pillars are arranged in rows forming a suggestive pattern. Since the site is dated at approximately 300 B.C., archeologists have taken sightings on seven prominent stars as they would have appeared during this period. (The azimuths of some of these stars had changed by as much as 12 in 2,200 years.) The stars chosen are those employed by Eastern Cushites, the present inhabitants of the region, in calculating their rather sophisticated calendar. Pairs and frequently triads of these pillars line up very accurately (to less than ...
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