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Search results for: amarna in all categories

305 results found.

31 pages of results.
31. Assyrian History: the 'Black Hole' [SIS C&C Review $]
... String. Velikovsky never charted his revisions. We were enthralled as his parallelisms were displayed with his wonderful way with words. Such enthusiasm wanes when one begins the tiresome process of charting these identifications across political and historical events in the broad sweep of the Near East, from Elam in the east to Lydia in the west. My own change in loyalty came when, like others, I began to work on the 'Hattusilis= Nebuchadnezzar' parallel from Ramses II and his Time. Further disillusionment came when I began to study the El Amarna letters and found there was a lot of information that Velikovsky did not quote or, worse, quoted inaccurately. At the time, I was formulating a revision that was so close to Velikovsky's that I felt he had just missed the prize. Imagine then my horror when I discovered my 'Black Hole', which is outlined below. In Luckenbill's Ancient Records of Assyria and Babylonia, vol. 1, there are some disturbing sections, relating to the records of Ashur-dan II and Adad-nirari II. The sections of greatest concern are ...
Terms matched: 1  -  Score: 60  -  05 Mar 2003  -  15k  -  URL:
32. Sidelights on Velikovsky's 'Ages in Chaos' [Catastrophism & Ancient History Journal $]
... in "Mesopotamia" and Syria. 6. Nikmed In the fifth chapter of Ages in Chaos and more decisively in the eighth chapter we observe a veritable Greek tragedy, the downfall of the gorgeous metropolis of Ugarit on the northern coast of Canaan and the sea flight of her brilliant king, Nikmed. In an argument whose masonry would deserve to be extolled as beautiful-- if it did not embrace a jarring error, Velikovsky attempted to prove that the ruin of Ugarit, dramatically portrayed in the clay archives exhumed from Tel el Amarna and Ras Shamra, is the very same event long known from the Assyrian monuments of the emperor Shalmaneser III as the battle of the city of Nikdime. According to him the battle was waged in the emperor's fourth year, -856. This claim, however, depends on a faulty reading of Luckenbill. 31 The inscription of Shalmaneser quoted by Velikovsky reports an attack on two cities, Nikdime and Nikdiera, in -856, but these cities, barely known from the Assyrian sources and never named in Ugarit records, were not located ...
Terms matched: 1  -  Score: 60  -  05 Mar 2003  -  50k  -  URL:
33. Letters [SIS C&C Review $]
... (Vol XIV) Home¦ Issue Contents Letters Aziru and the Bar Hadad Inscription Dear Sir, In C.& C. Review XIII (1991), p. 49, Peter van der Veen reported on a recent reading of the Bar Hadad inscription which appeared to suggest that Ezra might have been the father of Bar Hadad. Peter pointed out that this would be the equivalent of the final element in Hadad-ezer (the king of Zobah and a contemporary of David) whom Rohl and Newgrosh have tentatively equated with Aziru in the Amarna Letters. This was offered as additional evidence of the Aziru= [Hadad -ezer equation. Peter's information was based on proposed new readings by P. Bordreuil and J. Teixidor ('Nouvel Examen de l'inscription de Bar Hadad', Aula Orientalis 1 [1983, pp. 271-276). However, these readings have been superseded by those of Wayne T. Pitard (Ancient Damascus [Eisenbrauns: Winoan Lake, Indiana, 1987, pp. 138-144 and in greater detail in 'The Identity of Bir Hadad of the Melqart Stela', ...
Terms matched: 1  -  Score: 60  -  05 Mar 2003  -  13k  -  URL:
34. The Danunians and the Velikovsky Revision [Catastrophism & Ancient History Journal $]
... states that a king of the Danunians named 'ztwd in Phoenician and Asitawandas in Hittite hieroglyphic (which I think close to Lydian for a reason to be explained below) established a city called 'ztwdy in Phoenician and Asitawandawa in Hittite hieroglyphic. 2 The presence of Danunians in that region, Eastern Cilicia, can be pushed back a century to the time of Shalmaneser III who around -839 fought the Danunians so he could aid Kilamuwa (Kalamu), King of Iaudi-Sam'al. 3 This is important to Velikovskian scholars, because a letter from the Amarna Archive (EA 151) stated that the Danunians were in the same general area supposedly five hundred years earlier. 4 This is a small support for bringing the time of the Amarna Age to the ninth century. We return to the bilingual inscription. King Asitawandas called his people Danunians and his royal residence, P'r-- a city known by Shalmaneser Ill as Pahri, a royal city of the kingdom of Qaua or Que. 5 Que has been connected by some scholars to the Ahhiyawa, the Hittite name for the Achaeans ...
Terms matched: 1  -  Score: 60  -  05 Mar 2003  -  9k  -  URL:
... , whom he identifies with the Harmais whose treachery to his brother Sethosis, King of Egypt, is recounted in Flavius Josephus' polemic against Apion. This paper, which is intended as a postscript to an earlier article on the chronology of the XVIIIth Dynasty [3, examines the evidence for placing Horemheb at the close of this dynasty, rather than lowering his dates by over 100 years on the lines proposed by Dr Velikovsky. The position is complicated by the fact that the king lists which have survived from Dynasty XIX ignore the Amarna pharaohs and name Horemheb as the immediate successor of Thutmose IV and Amenhotep III, with Ramesses I and Seti I following Horemheb [4. Since Akhenaten, Smenkhkare, Tutankhamun and Ay are excluded as "uncanonical", it would be reasonable to assume that the Libyan and Ethiopian kings would similarly be omitted from the Abydos and Saqqara king lists had they intervened. No conclusions can therefore be drawn from their absence from these lists. On the other hand, Horemheb as king assumed the prenomen Djeser-khepru-Re' Setep-en-Re'. The element ...
Terms matched: 1  -  Score: 60  -  05 Mar 2003  -  16k  -  URL:
... rivers and streams affected by ash fallout, followed later by a plague of frogs. The frog spawn, protected under ledges and leaves, survived the temporary flow of acid waters under the ash clouds. With their natural predators wiped out, millions of defenceless tadpoles survived to become frogs, which subsequently swarmed over roads and invaded houses in parts of Washington State. The debate over dating Thera is thoroughly discussed. Phillips concludes from scientific and archaeological evidence that a date of c. 1360BC fits well into both the biblical Exodus and Egyptian Amarna periods. Seabed survey evidence suggests that an elongated cloud of ash would have covered most of Egypt, leaving the land of Goshen, i.e. the eastern Delta and Avaris, unaffected. Thus the Hebrew God had saved the Israelites. They would have seen the great black cloud drift southwards over the rest of Egypt. What better time could there be for them to escape? The pillar of cloud by day and of fire by night would have been from Thera. It was used as a beacon to guide the Israelites northwards ...
Terms matched: 1  -  Score: 60  -  05 Mar 2003  -  14k  -  URL:
37. Syria and Ugarit [Catastrophism & Ancient History Journal $]
... , 10 Velikovsky has created a series of problems. Having disposed of the concept that Shalmaneser III of Assyria could have played any part in Ugarit's end, we can begin to solve the problem. For the moment I will regard Azaru of Amurru as a separate individual from Hazael of Damascus. In noting that Nikmed would have had to be reigning at Ugarit as late as 845-- the earliest possible date for the beginning of Hazael's reign-- James fails to synchronize the reign of Nikmed in connection with the destruction of the Amarna period, 11 and also to prove the chronological possibility of Azaru being identical to Hazael. The True End of Ugarit The city itself survived the destruction of the Amarna Age 12 by about one and a half centuries, its end being associated with Hittite loss of power. In order to synchronize Nikmed with the end of Ugarit and with the reign of Suppiluliumas II (who Velikovsky most likely sees as Suppiluliumas III-Nabonidus of Babylon) 13 he would need to restore Ugarit and thus end it at the time of the Persian invasions during ...
Terms matched: 1  -  Score: 60  -  05 Mar 2003  -  33k  -  URL:
38. Assyria, Karduniash, Babylon: A Rational chronology [Catastrophism & Ancient History Journal $]
... with each being ruled by contemporary kings and priests; thus the 20th, 25th; and 22nd dynasty "pharaohs" ruled side by side in the 7th century. Using this technique the problems of 8th-6th century Egyptian chronology are resolved and there is clear evidence to support the thesis. Similar analysis can be presented for first millennium Karduniash/Babylon, asserting that there were two centers of power with a Kassite (Karduniash) king, Burraburniash, ruling side by side with Marduk Zakir Sumi (Babylon prince under Assyrian influence) during the Amarna period (865 B.C.). This approach furthermore must be used by all schools, both conventional and revised, to present Egypt in the Second Intermediate Period. In this case the conventional scholars squeeze this period into 200 years, with three capitals (Avaris, Xois, Thebes), whereas the revised chronology allows about 450years for this Hyksos epoch. The Multiple Center of Rule approach is often quite sound, as early scholars may not have had enough data to define all the power centers and their chronologies. This resulted ...
Terms matched: 1  -  Score: 60  -  05 Mar 2003  -  17k  -  URL:
39. An Answer to "The Danunians and the Velikovsky Revision" [Catastrophism & Ancient History Journal $]
... , the interpretation of P A Kh R I is rather "pottery"). In matters of paleography, one must never forget that the late toponyms all have one meaning-- relatively simple, and I will not try to teach distinguished Hebraists that one finds the numerals Gath(= Press), Migdol(= Turn), Kadesh(= Sanctuary), Tsur= Tyre(= Rock), etc., and it is logical to find several "PR's." There remains the problem of the letter of Amarna from the 14th century (B.C.) which speaks of "Danuna," which is previous to the arrival of Mopsus. But this Danuna most likely refers to the people born of the union of the Achaeans and Myceneans who pretended to be heirs of Danaos. And it is exactly in the 14th century that their power and their expansion are the strongest. (Do not forget that "Pamphylian" is a vernacular connected with their tongue and that they have filled the 14th century region rather accurately.) A connection with ...
Terms matched: 1  -  Score: 60  -  05 Mar 2003  -  7k  -  URL:
40. Velikovsky's Chronology in Question [Catastrophism & Ancient History Journal $]
... From: Catastrophism and Ancient History XII:1 (Jan 1990) Home¦ Issue Contents INTERACTION Velikovsky's Chronology in Question Lester J. Mitcham At this time I would like to draw attention to two issues that I believe argue against both Velikovsky's solution for Egyptian chronology and also against alternative models put forward by those who accept/defend his time placement for the 18th dynasty, but who then present their own solution for the later dynasties. Turning to the Amarna letters, Kadashman-Enlil (I) complains to Amunhotep III: "Thou hast written to [me saying: 'From of old, a daughter of the king of Egy[pt has not been given to anyone.'" Yet we know that Solomon married a daughter of Pharaoh. Thus Velikovskian scholars must accept that Amunhotep III was at best ill informed, or that Solomon must post-date the Amarna period. In examining some of the tablets found at the Hittite capital Boghazk÷y, KUB XXVI 70 (Bo 4979) contains the words: "Tukulti-Ninurta has sent me the tablet [letter of Urhi-Teshub." ...
Terms matched: 1  -  Score: 60  -  05 Mar 2003  -  2k  -  URL:
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