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305 results found.
31 pages of results.
21. EARLY GLASSMAKING AND CHRONOLOGICAL PUZZLES [Aeon Journal $]
... want a tenth century B.C.E. date. The finest pieces come from Akhenaton's (-1363 to -1347) capital Akhetaton where "ancient Egyptian glass reached its highest development," (26) and even portraits of this heretical king were formed of glass. (27) Such glass heads (28) only reappear a millennium later in the XXXth Dynasty (-380 to -343). (29) Workshops of New Kingdom glassmakers were found in Malkata (-1490 to -1363), Menshiych (XIXth/XXth Dynasty, -1200 to -1069), Tell el Amarna (-1359 to -1346) and Lisht (XIX/XXth Dynasty, -1200 to -1069). It seems that suddenly, around -1050, "the Egyptian production of glass vessels comes to a standstill." (30) It is then at least five or six centuries before glass vessels begin to show up again in Egypt. When these glasses reappear they are produced in the same way as before the long break and artistically they seem to evolve out of designs of the 14th century BCE. In a way, one could even ...
22. Early History of the Israelite People: Biblical Fundamentalism in History (II) [The Velikovskian $]
... the question of the emergence of the House of David. I put the Exodus event around -630, at the end of the Ninos-Assyrian (Hyksonian, Old Akkadian, Old Assyrian) empire or at the beginning of the Medish (Mitanni) period, respectively. "Israel in Egypt" thus refers to mercenaries, administrators and settlers coming with the Ninos-Assyrian forces who could not help but launch their attacks of the stratigraphy-dated -8th century on Egypt from Israelite soil. (9) By taking stratigraphy seriously, I also had to restore the Amarna correspondence to its evidence-based chronological position. The partners of the Medes (Mitanni) in Akhet-Aton were dated to the early Medean -6th century. (10) The dramatic shift from Middle to Late Bronze has all the ingredients of the Exodus event, reaching from natural catastrophes hitting the Hyksos to military and non-military destructions in Israel. As an adherent to biblical fundamentalism and pseudoastronomy, A. Mazar dates that shift to around -1550 and, therefore, cannot not match it to a fundamentalistically-dated Exodus: The most significant event concerning Palestine was ...
23. Chronological Problems in the Archaeology of the Hittites [SIS C&C Review $]
... major phases on the mound of Carchemish and the nearby cemeteries, which he named the "Early", "Middle" and "Late" Hittite periods. The so-called "Early Hittite" phase and an intermediate stage known best from the cemetery of Hammam cover the Early and Middle Bronze Ages down to around 1700 BC (conventional chronology) and need not concern us here [52. The following "Middle" and "Late Hittite" periods were documented by building activities on the mound and from the cemeteries, principally those of Amarna (distinct, of course, from the famous site in Egypt) and Yunus respectively. The Amarna "Middle Hittite" burials were exclusively inhumations, accompanied by grave-goods including bronze weapons. The pottery of the Amarna period continued alongside Yunus ware for a while in the Yunus "Late Hittite" period, the main difference being the change from inhumation to urn burials containing cremations. Other innovations included iron weapons (of different form from those of the Amarna phase), Egyptian amulets and scarabs, bronze fibulae, new pottery shapes ...
24. Cosmic Catastrophism [Aeon Journal $]
... in the fourth century B.C. (94) All of these arguments are bolstered by an extensive (and, to the layman, a very impressive) array of textual and archaeological evidence. However, Velikovsky's arguments and evidence have not persuaded the vast majority of specialists in various fields of study relating to the ancient Near East. His interpretations of ancient texts are especially questionable. For example, there are a number of letters written on clay in Akkadian (the language of the ancient Babylonians and Assyrians) that were found at El Amarna in Egypt in the nineteenth century. These Amarna letters, as they are called, were written mainly to the Egyptian pharaohs Amenhotep III and Akhenaton. As just mentioned, Velikovsky synchronizes the reigns of these two pharaohs with those of the mid-ninth-century-B.C. rulers of Judah, Israel, and Assyria. The people, places, and events mentioned in the Amarna letters, therefore, must match biblical accounts of the period of Ahab and Jehoshaphat in I and II Kings and II Chronicles as well as the Assyrian records of Shalmaneser III. ...
25. Dating the Trojan War [Catastrophism & Ancient History Journal $]
... c. 750. I think archaeological evidence exists to prove it impossible to date the Trojan War c. 810. The archaeological sections in Cambridge Ancient History on Greek and Trojan protohistory give us the following synchronisms: (1) Troy VI Myc IIIA, but predominantly IIIb VIIA Idem VIIb1 IIIb or IIIc----------------------- VIIb2 Buckelkeramik (2) LC Ib Myc IIb, IIIa1 LC II IIIa2, IIIb end LC IIc IIIB Amarna LC IIa LC IlIa Myc IIIc1 (3) Myc IIa Thutmoses IV(?) IIb Amenophis III IlIa2 Amarna IIIb Sack of Thebes and Pylos Isaacson[21 synchronizes Troy VIIb1 with Greek protogeometrical vases and Myc (Mycenaean) IIIc1 with orientalizing vases. I think we can summarize this information in the following scheme: Myc IIb LC Ib---- Myc IIIa1 Amenophis III---- LC II Amarna Myc IIIa2 Troy VI---- Troy VIla Myc IIIb Heracles built by Laomedon----- ...
26. C&C Review 1988 Issue (Volume X): Contents [SIS C&C Review $]
... chronologies. Moe M. Mandelkehr: An Integrated Model for an Earthwide Event at 2300 BC: Part III, the Geological Evidence 11 In the third of his series of articles examining the evidence for a major disruption at or around 2300 BC, Moe Mandelkehr has amassed a wealth of geological data in support of his thesis. His impressive catalogue of data constitutes a challenge both to uniformitarians (who have to explain the disruptions) and to catastrophists (who have to indicate their source). David Rohl& Bernard Newgrosh: The El Amarna Letters and the New Chronology 23 A successful revised chronology for the ancient Near East must take into account the evidence of the El Amarna Letters. This paper re-examines their witness and compares it to the best source on Palestine- the Old Testament- finding dramatic parallels in the Early Monarchy period. Thus, the controversial 'New Chronology' receives major support. Eric W. Crew: Erratic Events in the Solar System 43 The past history of the Solar System has been characterised by erratic events, contends Eric Crew. His computer simulations ...
27. The Amarna Royal Tomb [SIS Internet Digest $]
... From: SIS Internet Digest 2001:2 (Sep 2001) Home¦ Issue Contents The Amarna Royal Tomb Geoffrey Martin Summary This talk provided a largely photographic review of the royal tomb. As the slides are not available here, the talk will inevitably lose something of its impact. The overall conclusion was that Akhenaten was indeed buried in this tomb in his 17th regnal year, conventionally around 1350 BCE. A surprising feature was that many of the burial artefacts are familiar from traditional Egyptian funeral practice, and are nothing to do with the Amarna religion. Content The talk began with a photographic journey from the modern village within the city limits of Akhetaten, up to and along the wadis leading to the royal tomb. From the planned extent of the ancient city it was evidently intended as a long-term proposition, though events of course overtook it. The walk along the wadi revealed numerous details, such as walls, an ancient trackway and traces of hut settlements (probably for guards, possibly for workers) protecting the various possible entry points. These rather faint ...
28. The Oedipus Legend and the Amarna Period [Kronos $]
... From: Kronos Vol. IX No. 3 (Summer 1984) Home¦ Issue Contents The Oedipus Legend and the Amarna Period Walter Federn INTRODUCTION There is no reason to doubt that the Oedipus story may have had its origin in some historical events of the Mycenaean Age. Since the only episode of the Oedipus story that can be localized with certainty in continental Greece is the slaying of Laios,(1) which may have been a later addition,(2) there is no reason to deny the possibility that the story originated among the Ionians of Asia Minor, and for some unknown reason was transferred later to Boeotian Thebes. To account for the appearance of the Sphinx, which is an integral part of the story, an origin in some Egyptian myth has been postulated for it at least three times.(3) The novelty of Velikovsky's idea lies in his suggestion that: A) the story of the death of the Sphinx originated in an historical event, namely, the destruction of a conspicuous sphinx-statue, and B) the prototype of Oedipus ...
29. Twists of Time [SIS C&C Review $]
... From: SIS Chronology& Catastrophism Review 2001:2 (Jan 2002) Home¦ Issue Contents LETTERS Twists of Time Bob Porter Replying to Geoff Barnard's letter in C&CR 2001:1 p. 73, I am partly in agreement but more explanation is required. Geoff questioned how the New Chronology could down-date Egyptian, Hittite and Babylonian chronology by c.350 years at the times of Ramesses II, Hattusilis III and their Babylonian contemporaries Kadashman Turgu and Kadshman Enlil II (the Amarna period and the whole of Late Bronze II are, of course, similarly downdated), whereas in an earlier period the First Dynasty of Babylon was only down-dated by 227 years (based on Wayne Mitchell's astronomical calculations on the Venus tablets). The chronological sequence can be roughly summarised as follows: First Dynasty of Babylon (Venus tablets) Early Kassite Period (how long?) Amarna period (downdated c.350 years by NC) Ramesses II/Hattusilis III/Kadashmans Barnard seems to assume that the length of the early Kassite period has been correctly fixed, but this is very ...
30. Three Views of Heinsohn's Chronology [SIS C&C Workshop $]
... around 2400 BC and the latter taking over around 2000 BC. This sequence is well adhered to in Mesopotamia and parts of Syria, like Ebla and Mari, dated via Mesopotamian connections. They switch from so-called true Akkadian to West Semitic Akkadian of the Old-Babylonian Martu around the turn of the 3rd to 2nd millennium BC. This procedure, however, is not followed by areas which are Egyptologically (i.e. Sothic) dated. The Hyksos of Middle Bronze II Palestine got their Egyptian dates from being predecessors of New Kingdom rulers of the Amarna period who received letters from Palestine. The same happened to the Old-Hittites whose successors wrote to Amarna as well as to Ramesses II. There is no doubt that the Hyksos and the Old-Hittites were true contemporaries whatever the absolute dates eventually assigned to them. Both territories take some 700 years to learn Semitic cuneiform though Old-Akkadian rulers are well acquainted with them and exercise considerable control in these areas adjacent to their empire. When, in the 17th century BC, Semitic cuneiform is adopted in Anatolia and Hyksos Palestine, a strange decision is ...
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