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1. The Still-Lost City of Avaris: The Capital and Stronghold of the Hebrew Pharaohs (Hyksos) [Catastrophism & Ancient History Journal $]
... and Stronghold of the Hebrew Pharaohs (Hyksos) Tamara Futterman There has been much puzzlement, mystery, and scholarly debate during the last 150 years over the location of Avaris. Many proposals have been brought forth for the site of Avaris by archaeologists and linguists who interpreted the hieroglyphics. This has led to many a painstaking argument and a few retractions, but the search still persists. The leading contenders both past and present who claim their geographic area of work is the site of the fabled Avaris are: Archaeologists Sites Petrie Tell-el-Yehudiyeh Montet Tanis Bietak Tel-el-Dab'a Habachi Qantir All of these remarkable men disagreed on this matter, and it is most interesting to disentangle the threads of their arguments. We can do this by stating their views, and then examining them in detail. We will then try theoretically to find the whereabouts of this much-sought-after place. The present author will also show an absolutely new vicinity for Avaris. Hopefully, a fearless archaeologist will go there in search of it. We must devote some time to an earnest and remarkable archaeologist, Sir William Mathew Flinders ...
2. L'Énigme de la Structure Elliptique [SIS C&C Review $]
... From: SIS Chronology& Catastrophism Review 2001:2 (Jan 2002) Home¦ Issue Contents Recent Developments In Near Eastern Archaeology L'Énigme de la Structure Elliptique Tanis looks like it may be producing a repeat of the Tanis tombs enigma (a tomb of Psusennes I of the 21 st Dynasty seems to have been built after an adjacent one of Osorkon II of the 22 nd Dynasty- see e.g. D. Rohl Test of Time Chap. 3; also C&CR 1997:2 pp. 38-9). Brissaud's summary of recent excavations in Bulletin de la Socité Francaise d'Égyptologie (150 [March 2001, pp. 26-41, 'Tanis...1997-2000') includes a section on an enigmatic elliptical structure (pp. 29-33; and see also an earlier report in Egytpian Archaeology 12 [1998 pp. 33-6 at which stage only one side of the pit had been excavated and it was assumed to be circular). This very large brick-lined pit is situated north of the central axis of the temple, corresponding to the position of the royal tombs to the ...
3. Recent Developments in Near Eastern Archaeology [SIS C&C Review $]
... (pp. 38-41). A retaining wall alongside and built with the Level II roadway is partly covered by the siege ramp attacking the Level III city. Since Level II is after Level III this appears impossible (as noted at p. 40 note5). It is regrettable that Lachish, which for the last 15 years has dictated the chronology of the late Iron Age, has taken so long to produce the preliminary reports. How long to the final reports, and can these problems be resolved without altering dates? The Tanis Royal Tombs Moving to Egypt, the current Tanis excavator has deigned to respond in print to 'le téléchronologiste David Rohl'. My thanks to Jeremy Goldberg (who incidentally, was also the Jeremy intended in C&CR 1997:1 p. 52- Jeremy Parnell being the treasurer!) for noting a preliminary mention in BSFE 138 p. 27, of a full article in Bulletin de la Société Francaise des Fouilles de Tanis 10 (1996) by Philippe Brissaud entitled 'Le Monstre du Loch Ness, est-il né dans le ...
4. Pharaoh So and the Libyan Dynasty [Catastrophism & Ancient History Journal $]
... the Summer of 1978. I lowered the beginning of the 22nd Dynasty to ca 730. Manetho gives the dynasty 120 years, while traditional chronology is more prodigious: 230 years (945-715 B.C.). I found it better to stay with Manetho. Then, the 23rd Dynasty, in fact a branch of the 22nd, began to rule during the period ca 730- ca 610, let us say in the first half of the 7th century. Petubastet, the first king of the 23rd Dynasty, would have reigned in Tanis; contemporaneously with him Sheshonq III continued to rule in Bubastis. We could conclude that the first kings of the 22nd Dynasty, prior to Sheshonq III, possibly reigned in both Tanis and Bubastis. Now the prophet Isaiah 7 says that Hoshea went looking for help in Zoan, i.e. Tanis. It is likely that Velikovsky in his thesis meant, by Sheshonq IV, the king who by some authors is called Sheshonq V: his explanation "last" is significant. This king must have reigned in Bubastis because he belonged ...
5. Early 21st Dynasty Genealogy and the Consequences of Redating the Installation of HPA Pinudjem 1 to ca. Year 1 of Psusennes I [SIS C&C Review $]
... /B and/or Piankh should be immediate offspring of Herihor and Nodjmet, thereby retaining the 'Masaharta constraint'. THE ORIGIN OF PSUSENNES I The above redating would also allow a filiation of the unknown royal son of Herihor from the unknown royal father of Psusennes I. Such a filiation of Psusennes I from Herihor seems extremely attractive, not least in view of the poor alternatives. THE HENTTAWY PROBLEM SOLVED? The above would allow Psusennes I's elusive Ramesside connection to pass through Thebes (though it would evidently have been more appreciated in Tanis). In agreement with Maspero, the source of Psusennes I and Makare A's legitimacy would be Herihor and Nodjmet. SMENDES The above redating requires a Ramesses XI/Smendes overlap. This would fit well with (e.g.) the status of Tentamun in Wenamun's report. It could also help explain Pinhasy's campaign and HPA Amenhotep's restoration. AFTER SMENDES On the above basis, Psusennes I would have come to power as a son-in-law of Smendes and uncle of Pinudjem I. Even with the above redating, the first of these relations ...
6. New Proposals For A Downdating the Egyptian New Kingdom [Catastrophism & Ancient History Journal $]
... shifts would here be dated to (ca.) the earlier reign of Piankhy, i.e. to just the time when Nubia was gaining increasing domination of southern Egypt. And at Memphis, the importance of the HPM appears to decline (cf. TIPE 194) between year 2 of Pimay and year 11 of Shoshenq, here at least roughly ca. when Shabako took over Memphis (cf. below following n.26 on Memphis in Piankhy's record). Since by year 20 of Piankhy, an Osorkon was seated at Bubastis (not Tanis) and Nimlot D at Hermopolis (not Thebes), it would here be clear (see also below on Piankhy's Osorkon) that the above shifts reflect a Nubian policy of displacing Libyan power from its high seats. (At Memphis, it appears – cf. below at nn.25-28-- that such displacement was directed to Athribis and Heracleopolis.) Downdating the end of Dyn. 22 to after 689/686 would also relieve Pedubast II's otherwise curiously isolated position: The accepted chronology seems to have early Dyn. 25 rather ...
7. Chronological Placements of the Dynasties of Manetho [SIS C&C Review $]
... of Egypt during the first half of the 7th century before Psamettichus seems to have gained central power. Assyrian inscriptions support Herodotus. Sennacherib reports that 'the kings of Egypt and the cavalry of the king of Ethiopia' came to the aid of King Hezekiah [11. Esarhaddon, in reporting his conquest of Egypt, says, 'Everywhere in Egypt, I appointed new kings, governors,...' [12. Ashurbanipal lists kings of Memphis and Sais, Si'nu, Nathu, (Pi)shaptu, Athribis, Hininshi, Tanis, Sabnuti, Pitinti, Busiris, Punubu, Ahni, Pihattihurunpi(ki), Pishabdi'a, Pahnuti, Sikut, Himuni (Hermopolis), Taini, and Thebes [13. Were all these kingdoms neglected by Manetho? The picture of regional kings given by Herodotus and late Assyrian inscriptions also holds for the late 8th century. The victory stele of the Ethiopian king Piy or Piankhy is probably the most important and instructive of all truly pre-Ptolemaic inscriptions. It shows that when he controlled Egypt, at least four other regional kings ...
8. Chapter XXVIII: The Fixed Year and Festival Calendars [Dawn of Astronomy (Book)] [Books]
... Chapter XXVIII The Fixed Year and Festival Calendars THE reformation of the Egyptian calendar, to be gathered, as I suggested in the last chapter, from the decree of Tanis, is not, however, the point to which reference is generally made in connection with the decree. The attempt recorded by it to get rid of the vague year is generally dwelt on. Although the system of reckoning which was based on the vague year had advantages with which it has not been sufficiently credited, undoubtedly it had its drawbacks. The tetramenes, with their special symbolism of flood-, seed-, and harvest-time, had apparently all meant each in turn; however the meanings of the signs were changed, the "winter season" occurred in this way in the height of summer, the "sowing-time" when the whole land was inundated and there was no land to plant, and so on. Each festival, too, swept through the year. Still, it is quite certain that information was given by the priests each year in advance, so that ...
9. Chapter VIII: the Earliest Solar Shrines in Egypt [Dawn of Astronomy (Book)] [Books]
... . East and West Pyramids and Temples at Gîzeh (From Lepsius.) We next come to the question as to whether any buildings were erected from an equinoctial point of view-- that is, buildings oriented east and west. Nothing is more remarkable than to go from the description and the plans of such. temples as we have seen at Abydos, Annu and Karnak, to regions where, apparently, the thought is totally and completely different, such as we find on the Pyramid Plains at Gîzeh, at Memphis, Tanis, Saïs, and Bubastis. The orientation lines of the German surveyors show beyond all question that the pyramids and some of the temenos walls at the places named are just as true to the sunrising at the equinoxes as the temples referred to at Karnak were to the sun-rising and setting at the solstices, and the Sphinx was merely a mysterious nondescript sort of thing which was there watching for the rising of the sun at an equinox, as the Colossi of the plain at Thebes were watching for the rising of the sun at ...
10. Dating the Kings of Dynasties XXI, XXII, and XXIII [Catastrophism & Ancient History Journal $]
... with the Piankhy who was Tirhaka's father. Dynasty XXIII The connections of Pedubast I and Osorkon III with Thebes seem certain. Here I will stay with the dates of c. 727-635 for Shoshenq III-Shoshenq V; these dates can easily be raised depending on the data for early dynasty XXVI. Thus Pedubast I from year 8 of Shoshenq III-- 720 B.C., for 25 years to 696 B.C. In 706 Takelot II had died and Pedubast I appointed Iuput I as co-regent at Bubastis (perhaps including Leontopolis, but probably not Tanis, where dynasty XXI held sway). Iuput I was followed by Shoshenq IV and Osorkon IV, being the Osorkon named by Piankhy. At Thebes Pedubast I was ultimately succeeded by Osorkon III, some time after 689 B.C., being the 39th year of Shoshenq III. From Baer we may note a co-regency between Osorkon II and Takelot II. Indeed, Kitchen's solution of having Osorkon II reign briefly, then the co-regency with Harsiese, followed by a second period of sole reign, seems questionable. More likely, upon ...
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