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Search results for: sothic in all categories
172 results found.
18 pages of results.
11. Sothic Dating Redux (Forum) [Kronos $]
... From: Kronos Vol. VI No. 4 (Summer 1981) Home¦ Issue Contents Forum Sothic Dating Redux To the Editor of KRONOS: When I received KRONOS [VI:1 and read it I had neither the time nor indeed the inclination to respond to criticism that ranges from well-intentioned but at times erroneous speculation to mere nit-picking. At the moment I have some time and am persuaded to make a few comments. In the category of nit-picking I place the remarks of Lynn E. Rose. He well knows that my article was not intended to be an astronomical treatise. The very small error in reducing the decimal fraction of the tropical year to hours, minutes and seconds goes back to some source I have now forgotten but it has no bearing whatever on my argument for the validity of Sesostris III Sothic dating. Similarly with my definition of arcus visionis. The degrees that make it up have to be measured from the instant of first appearance of a star on the horizon after invisibility until the sun itself appears on the horizon. So too ...
12. Weighing The Anchor [Kronos $]
... From: Kronos Vol. VI No. 1 (Fall 1980) Home¦ Issue Contents Weighing The Anchor Lynn E. Rose The popular fiction of a "Sothic dating system" that was supposedly used in Egypt as far back as the Middle Kingdom or even the Old Kingdom has been severely criticised by Velikovsky in his "Supplement" to Peoples of the Sea. Sothic theory is a speculative retrojection loosely based on the ideas of various classical- and relatively late- writers, including Geminus, Censorinus, and Theon. My brief remarks here will be focused on some conceptual and computational aspects of Parker's recent defence of Sothic dating, and on one of those late classical sources, namely, Censorinus. I will leave it to others to comment on Parker's use of Middle Kingdom documents. Parker says: "Now from Censorinus and coins of Antonius Pius it is safe to conclude that in the years AD 139 to 142 Sirius rose heliacally on I 'ht I Egyptian, corresponding to July 20 for AD 139 and July 19 for AD 140 to 142. From ...
13. Chapter XXVI: the Sothic Cycle and the Use Made of it [Dawn of Astronomy (Book)] [Books]
... Chapter XXVI The Sothic Cycle and the Use Made of it ALTHOUGH it is necessary to enter somewhat into the domain of chronology to really understand the astronomical observations on which, the Egyptian year depended and the uses made of the year, I shall limit myself to the more purely astronomical part. To go over the already vast literature is far from my intention, nor is it necessary to attempt to settle all the differences of opinion which exists; and which are so ably referred to by Krall in his masterly analysis [1 to which I own myself deeply indebted. The tremendously involved state of the problem may be gathered from the fact that the authorities are not yet decided whether many of the dates met with in the inscriptions really belong to a fixed or a vague year! Let us, rather, put ourselves in the place of the old Egyptians, and inquire how, out of the materials they had at hand, a calendar could be constructed in the simplest way. They had the vague year and the Sirius year, so related, as ...
14. Astronomy and Chronology: An Assessment [Kronos $]
... of the fundamental weaknesses that underlie the chronological scheme for ancient Egypt as it is presently understood and accepted. Astronomical retrocalculation- allied to an erroneous astronomical premise- stellar confusion, ambiguous and fragmented source material, conflicting data, a priori assumptions, and highly conjectural interpretations are shown to be the sum and substance of what constitutes the foundational criteria for reconstructing ancient Egypt's historical past; it is a pyramid built on quicksand. The major thrust of "Astronomy and Chronology" is directed at the astronomical underpinning of Egyptian chronology- the so-called Sothic period. Velikovsky explicitly demonstrates the unreliability and incertitude of Sothic reckoning (Peoples of the Sea, pp. 215-233), which is based upon supposed heliacal risings of the star, Sirius, and shows that "the Sothic scheme of ancient chronology is rooted in a fallacy." The crowning revelatory achievement of "Astronomy and Chronology" (Peoples, pp. 235ff) is the hitherto unrecognized role that the planet Venus played in the calendric system of the Egyptians. "The confusion of Venus with Sirius renders obsolete the astronomical ...
15. Chapter XXVII: The Calendar and its Revision [Dawn of Astronomy (Book)] [Books]
... Chapter XXVII The Calendar and its Revision IN the last chapter the so-called Sothic cycle was discussed, and dates of the commencement of the successive cycles were suggested. These dates were arrived at by taking the very simplest way of writing a calendar in pre-temple times, and using the calendar inscriptions in the most natural way. The dates for the coincidence of the heliacal rising of Sirius and the 1st Thoth of the vague year at, or near, the solstice, were 270 B.C. 1728 B.C. 3192 B.C. Here, in limine, we meet with a difficulty which, if it cannot be explained, evidently proves that the Egyptians did not construct and use their calendar in the way we have supposed. We have it on the authority of Censorinus that a Sothic period was completed in 139 A.D., and that there was then a vague year in partial use. It is here that the work of Oppolzer is of such high value to us, he discussed all the statements made by Censorinus, and comes to the conclusion that his account is ...
16. Anchors Aweig [Kronos $]
... Autumn 1979), pp. 2-3. It is reprinted here with the permission of the authors and the SISR.- LMG "To abandon 1786 BC as the year when Dynasty XII ended would be to cast adrift from our only firm anchor, a course that would have serious consequences for the history, not of Egypt alone, but of the entire Middle East" Readers of KRONOS and the SIS Review will already be familiar with this quotation from the eminent Egyptologist Sir Alan Gardiner, typifying the dilemma of Near Eastern archaeologists over Sothic dating.(1) Despite the manifest weaknesses of the Sothic dating theory, and although it is exceedingly difficult to find an Egyptologist who will actually defend it, Sothic dates are still used as absolute reference points for the history of the ancient world. One of the most troublesome Sothic dates has always been that based on the supposed reference to the rising of Sirius in the reign of Sesostris III, from which the chronological benchmark of 1786 BC for the end of the XIIth Dynasty has been calculated. A few years ago ...
... From: Kronos Vol. VI No. 1 (Fall 1980) Home¦ Issue Contents The "So-Called" Fixed Sothic Date of Sesostris III, 1872 B. C. John Dayton Editor's Note: The material presented here has been reprinted from John Dayton's book MINERALS METALS GLAZING& MAN by permission of George C. Harrap& Co. Ltd. The book may be obtained by writing to the publisher at the following address: P.O. Box 70, 182-184 High Holborn, London WCIV 7AX.- LMG This date is based on the work of Parker (1950) and Neugebauer (1938). Examination of the facts, however, shows that the date rests on certain very doubtful assumptions, and that there is absolutely no evidence at all for a Sothic cycle having had any effect on the ancient Egyptians. It is assumed by Parker (a) that a lunar calendar existed (which is a quite reasonable assumption since all primitive peoples recognise the lunar cycle, which, however, repeats itself every 25 years ); (b) that the ...
18. Sun, Moon, and Sothis: A Study of Calendars and Calendar Reforms in Ancient Egypt by Lynn E. Rose [Aeon Journal $]
... obsolete. What a difference a quarter of a day makes! Holidays would tend to wander ahead about one day every four years and, even if a pharaoh enjoyed a long reign for some thirty years, such holidays would be off by more than a week. Notwithstanding, the priestly order of Egypt stuck to their guns and retained their 365-day year, knowing full well that the 365 1/ 4 -day year and the religious year wouldn't be in alignment again for almost a millennium and a half-- 1460 years: the Sothic period. (This term is the Greek transliteration of the Egyptian Sopdet, or spdt, ostensibly relating to the Star of Isis, Sirius.) To forestall any misalignments, the holidays-- or "feasts" as they seem to have been called-- were often regulated by the Moon, usually dating the first of each month by noting the first invisibility of the old crescent just before sunrise. Since the monthly excursion of the Moon takes about 29 1/ 2 days, the months varied between 29 and 30 ...
19. Kronos Vol. VI, No. 1 Fall 1980: Contents [Kronos $]
... From: Kronos Vol. VI, No. 1 Fall 1980 Texts Home¦ Kronos Home KRONOS A Journal of Interdisciplinary Synthesis Vol. VI, No. 1 Fall 1980 TABLE OF CONTENTS 1 Catastrophism and the Compulsion to Meaning William Mullen 12 Nor Heaven Nor Earth Have Been at Peace: The Contemporary Foundations of Shakespeare's Cataclysmic Imagery (Concluded) Richard J. Jaarsma with Edward L. Odenwald 25 "The Seasons Alter": Catastrophism in A Midsummer Night's Dream Irving Wolfe 48 Shamir Immanuel Velikovsky SPECIAL SUPPLEMENT 51 On Sothic Dating: Some Preliminary Remarks Lewis M. Greenberg 53 The Sothic Dating of the Twelfth and Eighteenth Dynasties Richard A. Parker 67 Weighing the Anchor Lynn E. Rose 69 Some Notes on Parker's "Sothic Dating" Shane H. Mage 71 Venus and Sirius Jan N. Sammer 74 Calendrical Changes and Sothic Chronology... Immanuel Velikovsky 75 The "So-Called" Fixed Sothic Date of Sesostris III, 1872 B. C. John Dayton 78 Anchors Aweigh Geoffrey Gammon and Peter J. James 86 Forum Cover iii Contributors EDITORS Editor-in-Chief Lewis M. ...
20. Horizons [SIS C&C Review $]
... of climate on Elizabethan and Jacobean literature, "Nor Heaven Nor Earth Have Been at Peace: The Contemporary Foundations of Shakespeare's Cataclysmic Imagery"; and a further piece from Irving Wolfe on Shakespeare, "'The Seasons Alter': Catastrophism in a Midsummer Night's Dream". A short and highly interesting article from Dr Velikovsky's own pen, "Shamir", argues that radioactive materials such as radium or uranium were known to the ancient Hebrews. A special supplement brings together some reprinted articles and short comments from Kronos staff on the problems of Sothic dating, the main focus being Richard A. Parker's "The Sothic Dating of the Twelfth and Eighteenth Dynasties" (from Studies in Honor of George R. Hughes, Studies in Ancient Oriental Civilization 39, Jan 12 1977). As the scholar who is most firmly associated with the modern theory of Sothic dating, Parker attempts to refute the criticisms made by Ronald Long in his "Re-examination of the Sothic Chronology of Egypt" (Orientalia 43, 1974, reprinted Kronos II:4: 1977). Answering comments are ...
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