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Search results for: persian in all categories

382 results found.

39 pages of results.
81. Letters [SIS C&C Review $]
... the SW coastal plain to harass tribal elements infiltrating into southern Palestine. In some ways he resembles the Middle Assyrian king Tiglath Pileser I, fighting endless campaigns in a vain attempt to stem Aramean migration. A similar situation prevailed in Dyn. 20 Egypt- but the pastoralists were Libyans. Various historians have commented on the boundaries of the United Monarchy. It closely corresponds to the area controlled by Egypt during Dyns. 19- 20 and is much smaller than the area conquered by Dyn. 18 pharaohs. However, Solomon resembles a Persian despot- a caricature of Cyrus. He is benevolent, tolerant, wise, a great and prodigious builder, a lover of fine things, with many wives etc. The Temple of Solomon is described in great detail and appears to be a description of the Temple built in the 5th century BC- under the auspices of Persia. The Pharisees, a Jewish priesthood inaugurated to officiate at it, appear to draw their name directly from the Persians or Parsee. The Persian empire obtained products from around the world and Iran, ...
Terms matched: 1  -  Score: 24  -  05 Mar 2003  -  36k  -  URL:
... from Babylon against the Kassites as late as 324/323 BCE) this nation is well attested in sources of foes and neighbors but never used its native tongue. All that can be said about their own language, therefore, "is hampered by the fact that most Kassite names were written down in a foreign cuneiform script and were represented as heard by Babylonian or Babylonian-trained scribes." (19) The very early Kassites from the Old-Babylonian period (1700 BCE) as well as the very late ones from the end of the Persian and the beginning of the Greek period (fourth century BCE) even seem to have worshipped "Greek or Indian deities." (20) Thus some 12,000 cuneiform documents which belong to the Kassites, are not written in Kassite but in Sumerian and Akkadian. (21) The only ancient city up to now considered a true Kassite foundation, the above mentioned Dur-Kurigalzu, not only yielded Sumerian texts but also temples "dedicated to the divine family Enlil, Ninlil and their son Ninurta." (22) These ...
Terms matched: 1  -  Score: 24  -  05 Mar 2003  -  34k  -  URL:
... in a position able to provide confirmation concerning the age of developed cultures in both regions. Since the lineage supplied by Genesis places Abraham's birth at more than 500 years before Moses, the patriarch would have left a flourishing Mesopotamian city around 2100 BCE to acquaint himself with a similarly flourishing Egypt a few decades later. Following the elimination of Abraham as a historical figure-- a process that commenced in the late 19th century and was only completed in the 70's of the 20th, when it was established that Abrahamic lore dates from the Persian period and later (6)-- historical chronology had to start from scratch. As far as Mesopotamia is concerned, the chronological materials now in use consist of the king-lists that are gradually being unearthed, without, however, the stratigraphical levels in which they are found always being identified. Abraham is hardly ever given a mention in the work now being carried out on the king-lists, yet the dates of the "new" chronology do not differ very much from the dates used up to the 19th century when Abraham was ...
Terms matched: 1  -  Score: 20  -  05 Mar 2003  -  40k  -  URL:
84. Astral Kingship [Aeon Journal $]
... essential for the majesty of the new sovereign; and the source of that power was not arbitrary. It emanated from the greatest of the planetary deities, who showered their unqualified blessings only upon those terrestrial vicars deemed worthy. Who were these planetary deities and why were they considered the dispensers of divine authority? With a choice of gods and a multitude of celestial bodies to choose from, why were Saturn, Jupiter, and Venus-- with their respective representative divinities and festivals-- the prime font of astral kingship? The Persian King of Kings When Cyrus the Great triumphantly entered Babylon in October 539 BC, he was welcomed with open arms and hailed as legitimate ruler by the populace within. This political achievement was due, in no small part, to the fact that Cyrus quickly paid thoughtful homage to the great god of Babylon-- Marduk. "Not as a conqueror or liberator did Cyrus intend to claim the loyalty of his Babylonian subjects but rather by giving his kingship constitutional grounds and establishing himself as benefactor of Marduk, the chief deity of ...
Terms matched: 1  -  Score: 20  -  05 Mar 2003  -  76k  -  URL:
... From: Aeon I:6 (1988) Home¦ Issue Contents The Stratigraphy of Bahrein: An Answer to Critics Gunnar Heinsohn INTRODUCTION My study Die Sumerer gab es nicht (" The Sumerians did Not Exist) (1) was summarised by using the graphic below: TEXTBOOK ERAS FOR SOUTHERN MESOPOTAMIA Compressed to archaeologically existing and historically 1) Late Chaldaeans also comprise the "Empire Hittites" now dated -1450 to -1200. 2) The Assyrian Empire has another phantom in the "Old-Assyrians" or after -1950. 3) The Persian dominance also compromises the "Middle-Assyrians" now dated after the Mitanni. The latter are the Medes controlling Assyria's heartlands from -610 until their defeat by the Persians in -550. Via the Mitanni=Medes of the late 7 th century B.C.E. the Amarna period becomes the anchor point for Egypt's chronology. I added to this summary the following statement: The present writer is fully aware that just one excavation site showing an unambiguous sequence of eight layers for the eight eras in our history books would be enough to falsify his historical reconstruction ...
Terms matched: 1  -  Score: 20  -  05 Mar 2003  -  25k  -  URL:
86. Theses for the Reconstruction of Ancient History [Velikovsky Archive Website]
... of Artaxerxes II under the satrap Pharnambazus, and not the Philistines. 263. The war described by Ramses III, and by Diodorus and other classical authors (the war of Nectanebo 1), is one and the same war of 374 BCE 264. A camp was set up by Pharnambazus in Acco in preparation for an attack against the Egypt of Ramses III. 265. A naval invasion against Egypt was undertaken by forcing the Mendesian mouth of the Nile, fortified by Ramses III. 266. Flame throwers were used on the Persian ships forty years before their use by the Tyrians at the siege of Tyre by Alexander. 267. The Egyptian bas-reliefs of the temple at Medinet Habu show Sidonian ships and Persian carriages comparable to the pictures of ships and carriages on the Sidonian coins minted during the years of the invasion. 268. The bas-reliefs of Medinet Habu show the reform of Iphicrates in lengthening the swords and spears and reducing the armor intended for defense. 269. The Jewish military colony at Elephantine still existed in 374 BCE and participated in the defense of ...
Terms matched: 1  -  Score: 20  -  31 Aug 2000  -  70k  -  URL:
87. Egyptian Language Anomalies [SIS C&C Workshop $]
... From: SIS Chronology and Catastrophism Workshop 1994 No 2 (Dec 1994) Home¦ Issue Contents Egyptian Language Anomalies by Jesse E. Lasken Introduction Conventional and 'New' chronologists agree that thirty dynasties ruled Egypt for around 3,000 years. They divide Egypt's history from 'Dynasty 3' (or sometimes 'Dynasty 4') until Roman rule into an Old Kingdom, First Intermediate Period, Middle Kingdom, Second IntermediatePeriod, New Kingdom, Third Intermediate Period, Saite Dynasty, Persian Period, and Ptolemaic Period. The main difference in the 'New' chronology involves the substantial shortening of the Third Intermediate Period and the related movement of the 'New Kingdom' to about three centuries later than the conventional dating. However the dynastic framework depends upon the dubious use of certain epitomes of Manetho. Whatever the justification for the tentative formulation of this chronological hypothesis around 1830 (dubious even then), it cannot withstand objective evaluation [1. Several lines of evidence suggest the need for a substantial compression of Egyptian chronology. Indeed, I have suggested c. 1700 BC as the ...
Terms matched: 1  -  Score: 20  -  05 Mar 2003  -  39k  -  URL:
... It is followed not by the XIXth Dynasty (which Velikovsky holds to be "substantially one and the same" as the XXVIth Dynasty) but by what are designated as the XXIInd to the XXVth Dynasties, the total span of which is reduced to 150 years instead of the commonly accepted 280 years. The XXIst Dynasty is seen as preceding and overlapping the XXth Dynasty which, in turn, is considered to be identical with the XXIXth and XXXth Dynasties. Throughout the entire period, only the brief Ethiopian XXVth Dynasty and the two Persian regencies of the XXVIIth and XXXIst Dynasties are correctly ordered and placed in the conventional chronology. Velikovsky supports this drastic restructuring and telescoping of Egyptian history by offering detailed lines of evidence extending in Volume I of Ages in Chaos through five successive parallel generations of rulers in Egypt and Palestine. The full exposition of the remainder of the work still awaits publication, but at the time he presented his Theses in 1945, one of the most useful of modern methods for absolute dating, namely radiocarbon or carbon-14 analysis, was just being conceived ...
Terms matched: 1  -  Score: 20  -  05 Mar 2003  -  34k  -  URL:
89. The Timna Test [Aeon Journal $]
... What reader will fail to recall Velikovsky's "impossible" 1978 claim in Peoples of The Sea that received opinion on dating the onset of the Twentieth Dynasty was some 800 years out of synchronism with reality? Although thoroughly "debunked" following his death in November 1979, the simple fact to be gleaned twenty years down the track is that this dismissal was nothing but knee-jerk reaction, hasty and premature, the rash outcome of material jettisoned without due examination. This paper is one link in an evidential chain which addresses the period from the Persian invasion of Egypt by Cambyses in 525 B.C. to the Macedonian period as far as Alexander the Great in the early fourth century BC. It will stand as an extremely rigorous test for Velikovsky's original premise that Ramesses III is to be equated with Nectanebos I as portrayed in the history of Diodorus Siculus. Diodorus Siculus referred to the Egyptian king who successfully expelled the Persians in -375 as Nectanebos. Velikovsky claimed the Egyptian king who expelled the Persians was Ramesses III and was to be equated with the same Nectanebos. Various were the ...
Terms matched: 1  -  Score: 18  -  05 Mar 2003  -  134k  -  URL:
90. Child of Saturn (Part V) [Kronos $]
... From: Kronos Vol. X No. 3 (Summer 1985) Home¦ Issue Contents Child of Saturn (Part V) Dwardu Cardona Copyright 1985 by Dwardu Cardona 24. Anat Our quest for the progenitor of Venus has led us from an analytical study of the Persian Anahita to the Canaanite and Carthaginian deities, Anat and Tanit.(1) Shall we fare better in our attempt to unmask Venus' real parent through an investigation of these deities? The case for Anat, with whom we shall commence, is straightforward enough. As Immanuel Velikovsky pointed out, a Cyprian inscription identifies Anat with the Greek Athene(2) who, despite Bob Forrest's contention to the contrary,(3) has been ably demonstrated to have been an alias of the Venerian goddess.(4) But we ask for more. Like the Venerian deities of other nations, Anat was a goddess of love and war.(5) What we know of her comes mostly, but not solely, from the tablets discovered at Ras Shamra, the ancient Ugarit, ...
Terms matched: 1  -  Score: 16  -  05 Mar 2003  -  29k  -  URL:
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