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Search results for: persian in all categories
382 results found.
39 pages of results.
21. Recent Developments in Near Eastern Archaeology [SIS C&C Review $]
... The temple complex in which the stone inscription was found includes the temple itself, with a 15m long eight columned hall and store rooms along the sides, and a large courtyard surrounded by porticos. The temple is part of Strata IC-IB, dated by the authors to the 7th century BC and thought to include the later Assyrian occupation and a succeeding phase of Egyptian domination following Assyrian withdrawal in the late 7th century, and ending with total destruction by Nebuchadnezzar in 603 BC. On a reduced chronology this stratum might be dated to the Persian period, thus requiring the inscription to date from an earlier stratum than IC, which brings us to the all important question of the position of the inscribed limestone block. It was found upside down close to the rear (i.e. innermost) wall of the temple and the authors 'strongly suggest' that it had fallen from that wall (p. 7). However, there is insufficient information in the article to determine its position relative to the inner temple floor- was it on or below the floor? It is ...
22. Ezra and Nehemiah in Recent Research [Catastrophism & Ancient History Journal $]
... retrospective to an Artaxerxes who was unsympathetic to the Jewish petition and caused construction to cease. While it may be possible to defend this interpretation as a change of mind and circumstance it remains possible that Cambyses was Ahasuerus and Artaxerxes was Smerdis. However, one must note that Josephus has but one king at work here i.e. Cambyses to whom he gives his proper length of reign. 3 Moreover, it should be noted that Daniel 11, usually considered to a second century B.C. source, appears to know the correct number of Persian kings from Darius the Mede to Xerxes. 4 I have supported the Ahasuerus= Cambyses and Artaxerxes= Smerdis at length in my monograph mentioned above and will not repeat its argumentation here. I have also discussed at length that the names Ahasuerus and Artaxerxes are not to be taken as literal. That is to say that Ahasuerus is used much like Pharaoh as a general designation for a king and Artaxerxes is a title used to qualify more than one Persian king. In short there is nothing wrong with the chronology of Ezra 4 ...
23. The Garden of Venus [Aeon Journal $]
... From: Aeon VI:6 (Dec 2001) Home¦ Issue Contents The Garden of Venus Ev Cochrane The greatest goddess of the ancient Iranians was known as Anahita. Alternately described as a warrior, agent of fertility, and granter of glory or "strength" to heroes, Anahita was truly a goddess for all seasons. Her intimate association with kingship made the goddess a permanent fixture of investiture rituals. [1 Under the auspices of the Persian empire, Anahita's cult became disseminated across much of Asia Minor. [2 The most complete description of the goddess is that found in the fifth Yasht of the Avesta, the sacred book of the Iranians. There Anahita is made the source of a fabulous celestial spring from whence originated the world's waters. "1. Ahura Mazda spake unto Spitama Zar-athushtra, saying: 'Offer up a sacrifice, O Spitama Zarathushtra! unto this spring of mine, Ardvi Sura Anahita, the wide-expanding and health-giving, who hates the Daevas and obeys the laws of Ahura, who is worthy of sacrifice in the material world, ...
24. Chronological Placements of the Dynasties of Manetho [SIS C&C Review $]
... &CW, JACF, Epigraphic Society Occasional Papers, Discussions in Egyptology and elsewhere that the Egyptian and other cross-dated chronologies are seriously flawed. He is especially interested in researching the origins of literate civilisation and assessing the historicity of the Bible. Summary Based on Manetho, 31 mostly consecutive dynasties are thought to have ruled Egypt, many of these assumed to have ruled all of Egypt, even though his epitomes associate them with particular cities and do not specifically attribute consecutive or central rule to them. By erroneously assigning to earlier dynasties some Persian or Ptolemaic period epigraphic material written in the Egyptian language that manifests centralised Egyptian rule, Egyptologists have reinforced the idea that many of Manetho's dynasties ruled all of Egypt rather than more limited areas. An alternative interpretation is proposed in which Manetho's dynasties are treated as largely concurrent, regional kingdoms, the earliest of which may not date before the mid-2nd millennium BC and may not have been located in Egypt. A basic assumption of Egyptologists, including James and Rohl, is that thirty-one dynasties ruled Egypt before the Ptolemies. They further assume ...
25. The Stratigraphical Chronology of Ancient Israel [Aeon Journal $]
... (" Palace Ware"), which was already dated to the 6th-3rd century by earlier excavators, (13) was meanwhile also found in Mesopotamia proper and, for stratigraphical reasons, had to be dated after 610. (14) This fine ceramic ware was even dug up in Hellenistic burials. (15) Stratigraphically, the Sargonid remains immediately precede the Hellenistic ones of the 4th/3rd century without any recognizable hiatus whatsoever (e.g., at Hama (16) and Nimrud/Calah (17)). The Persian period, therefore, seems to provide a more convincing environment for these powerful kings. (18) The impressive achievements of nearly 150 years of modern archaeology in the ancient Near East seem to have debunked Israel's biblical history from Abraham to the Babylonian Exile, which likewise is burdened with some big question marks (see Section II below). The opposing parties are well entrenched. One side defends the biblical period from ca. 2100 (birth of the patriarch in Ur of the Chaldees) to 586 (deportation of Judah) ...
26. Heinsohn and the Hyksos (An Answer to Martin Sieff) [Aeon Journal $]
... more consistent with an Israel under Assyrian suzerainty. Israelite builders and architects may have made important contributions to the Assyrian Empire-- possibly including the design and construction of the famous glacis-wall fortresses-- just as Irish and Scottish engineers helped build the British Empire. 12 to 14) If in fact the Assyrian empire flourished in the Middle Bronze as Heinsohn claims, then it's a mistake to look for Assyrian remains in the Iron Age. The whole stratigraphical picture will have to be reinterpreted. We may even discover that the heretofore missing Persian layers were there all along but were incorrectly identified. However, even in terms of Martin's revision, the Bronze-Iron military technology question is anything but clear. According to the Bible, Goliath's armour and weapons were made of both metals. The Philistines had "900 chariots of iron" at a time when the science of blacksmithing was unknown in Israel. If we accept the Biblical record as accurate, and follow Sieff in the placement of Saul, David and Solomon, then iron military technology was already well advanced in the Middle ...
27. Letter [Velikovsky Archive Website]
... Dr. Velikovsky ? s identification of Hatshepsut with the Queen of Sheba, apparently not realizing that this appears in Ages in Chaos (1952) and not in Peoples of the Sea.. In Chapter III of the earlier work. Dr. Velikovsky presents a very impressive, convincing, and heavily annotated case for this identification. The evidence presented is much too strong to be disregarded and dismissed by Thomsen so flippantly. Thomsen accuses Dr. Velikovsky of cabalistic reasoning, of ? relying on correspondences of sound, such as Pereset and Persian.? This statement is a pure fabrication some of that ? downright imagination ? of which Thomsen disapproves. Dr. Velikovsky points out (p. 35) that ? in the hieroglyphic texts of the Persian era... Persia is always called P-r-s ? and that in the Canopus Decree, cut in stone, in 238 B.C., the Persians are referred to as P-r-s-tt. (There were no vowels in the alphabet.) The Canopus Decree is written both in Egyptian and in Greek. In Egyptian it describes ...
28. Ramessides, Medes and Persians by Emmet J. Sweeney (Reviewed) [SIS C&C Review $]
... does not heed John Bimson's warning not to trust some of his earlier articles (C&CR 1998:2, p. 39). Nonetheless, much of Sweeney's detailed history, particularly commendable for its many correlations with Herodotus (and other classical authors), is more than a little plausible. Like the 'ethnic groups' listed above, however, it is essentially elastic and well furnished with stratagems which make it possible to fit the available raw data to a preconceived scenario. E.g. Sennacherib is claimed to be an Achaemenid Persian (Xerxes) who can assume a Neo-Assyrian name (Sennacherib) when it suits his purposes; others do likewise (Cyrus the Persian is claimed to have alternative names of Tukulti-Ninurta and Tiglath-Pileser), with the outcome that they can all be fitted into a seemingly unchallengeable whole. Missing from the book, unfortunately, is a comprehensive name index, which would help tracking down cross-references, but compilation of such an index could prove a complex task, there being too many alternative slots for too many individuals and too many possible ethnic ...
29. Jonsson's 'Gentile Times' (Letter) [SIS C&C Review $]
... Times Revisited in C&CR 1999:1? I had the pleasure of meeting Carl at the recent British Museum conference' Under one Sky'. After securing from him his last spare copy, I read the book with growing enthusiasm. As stated in my Silver Jubilee (now Internet) paper on the history of revisionism, I much admired his paper published in C&CR IX (1987). His references to the evidence of thousands of ancient cuneiform business tablets endorsing the conventional chronology of the Neo-Babylonians and the early Persian Kings in particular seemed very important. Whilst Lynn Rose made some specific comments on the astronomical considerations, for me the extensive information about these documents is the book's highlight. I would strongly endorse Rose's commendation of this book, especially for the information concerning these texts. Put simply, there are tens, and often hundreds, of different tablets from widely dispersed Mesopotamian sites dated to every single year of all of the kings reigns covering the period from the Neo-Babylonian era (Nabopolassar, Nebuchadrezzar, Awel Marduk, Neriglissar, Labash-Marduk, ...
30. Peoples of the Sea: An Art Historical Perspective ... [Kronos $]
... : A Re-examination of the Egyptian Sources and The Sea Peoples and Egypt. pp. 6-12: It is good to hold firm on the point of the Greek letters on the tiles of Ramesses III's palace. It is a crux which, to the best of my knowledge, defies conventional explanation. pp. 12-17: It is at least possible that the cemetery was used over a long period of time, if one adheres to the conventional chronology. pp. 21-28: The identification of "Irsu" of Papyrus Harris with the Persian satrap or king is ingenious and can fit the precious few facts we have from the Egyptian record; it would be useful to check Albright's Vocalisation of the Egyptian Syllabic Orthography and to consider the possible vocalisations of the Egyptian spelling, especially if a choice is to be made between Arsa (the satrap) and Arsu (the king). On p. 27, however, it is unwise to quote the forms Arsatis, Arshu, Arsa and Arsu side by side as names of the Persian king without any consideration of what ...
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