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39 pages of results.
91. The Origins of the Spartan State in the New Chronology [SIS C&C Workshop $]
... BC). It may also be that the longer reigns of the junior Eurypontid Dynasty indicates a less active military role for these kings and that the inclusion of names like 'Eunomus' in the earlier part of the list may reflect artificial padding in order to bring the two dynasties back into line as a result of this discrepancy in the average reign duration of the two lines. A new history of Sparta leading up to the Archaic Period Having established what I believe to be a more reasonable time-span for the period leading up to the Persian Wars we can now introduce the historical events, handed down to us in the ancient literature, into this new chronological framework, to see how they might have influenced Spartan military and economic development during the period from c. 870 BC (the rough new date for the Dorian Invasion) to c. 500 BC (the Persian Wars). In the new condensed sequence of events it is unnecessary to avoid using the information given by the ancient writers. The major argument for treating this material with extreme caution is based almost ...
92. An Answer to the Critics of Ramses II and His Time [SIS C&C Workshop $]
... II describes himself as the 'royal son of Ramesses'. Clearly these kings could not have come between the 18th and 19th Dynasties. According to the genealogy mentioned above, Osorkon I lived 250 years after Merneptah [11. Let us now suppose for a minute that Velikovsky was correct in placing Merneptah in the mid-6th century. The first Osorkon would therefore have flourished near the end of the 4th century- in fact, right at the beginning of the Ptolemaic epoch. The priest-kings of the 21st Dynasty, which Velikovsky placed in the Persian and Ptolemaic ages, were buried in the same temple-precinct at Tanis as kings named Osorkon and Shoshenq. Psusennes, who bore the Persian title Shahedet, or Shahdidit (king's retainer') [12, was interred next to a king named Sosenk-heka-kheper-re. This 'otherwise unknown' monarch was buried (as was Psusennes) with artifacts inscribed in cuneiform [13. The language used has not been disclosed, but we may guess, along with Velikovsky, that it was Persian. Further close links between the 21st Dynasty and the Libyans ...
93. The Emerging Revision of Ancient History: Recent Research [The Velikovskian $]
... the 1977 Glasgow Conference on Velikovsky's historical work) faced the problem of squeezing an Iron Age conventionally reckoned to be 500 years long into a 140-year period between the Assyrian conquest of the Northern Kingdom, at 720 BC, and Nebuchadnezzar's destruction of Jerusalem, at 587 BC. It could not be done. Etzion retains the 720 BC start for the Iron Age, but gives it a full 550 years to run. He identifies Iron I as the Assyrian period, from 720 BC to 587 BC; Iron II as the Babylonian and Persian periods in Israel, from 587 BC to 333 BC; and Iron III as the period of Greek dominance starting with Alexander the Great, continuing through the conflicts between the Syrian Seleucid and Egyptian Ptolemaic empires, and ending with the Hasmonean revolt against Syria, all from 333 BC to 167 BC. Radical as this approach is, it solves many problems. The mystery of the "missing" Persian period --the dearth of remains from the Persian period --is resolved. Samaria, the Iron II city of Omri and Ahab, kings ...
94. Society News [SIS C&C Workshop $]
... 550-480, Buddha same era. All said human beings should look to religion for their own salvation. Pythagoras had studied the philosophy of the Magi, Solon also- all the same. Socrates said 'If you recognise yourself, then you will recognise the god'. Bob Porter had alternative suggestions why these religions arose. Just as Mahomet, living amongst polytheism, concocted Islam from Christianity and Judaism, so Z. etc. were influenced by Jewish exiles, also living amongst polytheism, reaching India and perhaps Greece and China via the Persian Empire. AS said that the important thing is not the monotheistic religion as such but the source of power. In the religion of the East as stated by Z, there is no room for violence or depriving a person from freedom of choice, or the threat to kill him, to make him accept monotheism. People should find salvation for themselves. Bob said Z. is a kind of development from Judaism. AS commented that before the exile, Judaism was tribal, mainly for the Jews. Judaism got its universality ...
95. Early History of the Israelite People by TL Thompson [SIS C&C Workshop $]
... , Israel and Judah were petty kingdoms of little significance, largely confined to marginal zones of settlement. This view is of course derived from a literal interpretation of conventional archaeology of the period. He goes on to say that prior to the Assyrian empire period and the reign of Sennacherib, Jerusalem was little more than a regional market town. It benefited from the demise of Lachish and due to cooperation with Assyria it grew into a large regional capital of southern Palestine. However, he claims Jerusalem came only to real prominence in the Persian period when, after the Exile, the city was transformed into a centre of a resurgent cult of Yahweh due to the purposeful imperial design of the Persians. Most controversially, and upsetting, Thompson goes so far as to insist that the returning exiles were themselves transportees and largely non-Israelite. He claims transportation and resettlement was practised not only by the Assyrians and Babylonians but was a policy continued by the Persians. They made use of a defunct cult of Yahweh and turned it into a regional variation of the imperial deity, Ahura ...
96. Society News [SIS C&C Review $]
... assigned to much earlier periods, leaving the four great periods attested to by Greek history without any apparent physical evidence. In this lecture he proposed to show how, if the four stratigraphic cultures were correctly assigned, then the Mittani and Medes would prove to be the same people and the great kings Aziru the Martu and Cyrus the Mardian one and the same person. Both kings rose to power at the end of the Mitannian and Median empires respectively, firstly assisting against rebellious nations and then taking over to found the Middle Assyrian and Persian empires respectively. However, despite the detailed history of the Median and Persian empires given by the Greeks, there appear to be no physical traces, making Alexander's conquests of little significance. However, the extent of the Mitannian empire deduced from cuneiform texts of the Amarna period is very similar to that of the fabled Median empire. The details of Aziru are seen in the el-Amarna letters, equated with the Median empire by Heinsohn, and there are many parallels between his history and Cyrus from Greek chronicles. Mitannian strata have been ...
97. The Stratigraphy of Israel [SIS C&C Workshop $]
... built Period 7, now build Period 4. I have added to Fig. 4 my own tentative modification of James' scheme, where the Assyrians build Period 3 (which represents a marked break) and introduce Period 4 pottery (also representing a significant break). I am therefore saying that the Period 4 pottery was in use during the life of the Period 3 buildings but does not appear in the archaeology until the foundations of the Period 4 buildings (resorting to Avigad's reasoning). I have put more strata into the Persian Period which is by far the longest, but my allocation of strata after the Assyrian Period is somewhat arbitrary. On both my own and James' schemes the Period 4 pottery goes with the Assyrians. This then becomes the key to unravelling the Iron Age stratigraphy throughout Northern Israel because the Samaria pottery can be linked to Megiddo, Hazor, etc. The dearth of strata for the Assyrian, Babylonian and Persian Periods in Israel can now be filled by downdating strata from the Israelite Monarchy. KENYON AVIGAD JAMES PORTER Building Pottery Building ...
98. Letters [SIS C&C Workshop $]
... of consecutive kings, although I do not entirely rule out the possibility of overlap in portions of the Lists. However, the assumption that the AKL end at 720 BC, just before the reign of Sargon II, is debatable and I am reasonably certain that one element of a proper adjustment of the 'Assyrian' chronology will involve a later ending date for the AKL. This will probably also require movement of some or all of the material now assigned to Sargon II and his successors. One possibility is that these records belong to Persian, Macedonian, or Parthian rulers of Assyria under their Assyrian names. Without attempting to defend or develop the above suggestion, I shall note a line of evidence that seems to compel the movement of Assyrian material closer in time. According to Rees and conventional Assyriologists, Ashurnasirpal II and Shalmaneser III reigned in the 9th century BC. However, the records of these two rulers mention activities at the Orontes River [2. Yet the eminent ancient geographer Strabo states that the name of this river was 'the Typhon' until a man ...
99. Site Stratification: is it a Sound Methodology? [SIS C&C Workshop $]
... contexts which are as easily explained by my suggestions as by the conventional interpretations. As I have pointed out, the Sumerian chronology is cross-dated to that of Egypt via Sumerian material found at Abydos in what Petrie claimed was a 1st Dynasty context [3. While I did not offer a specific date for the tombs at Abydos, by my chronology they would have to be dated after c. 1700 BC. In fact, these tombs are probably much later than that. They probably date as late as the Saite or even the Persian or Ptolemaic periods. In addition, and to be somewhat more precise, as a corollary to what I presented in Discussions in Egyptology, the flood mentioned in the Sumerian king lists and in other Sumerian material dated to c.1700 BC. Without going into a discussion here, let me simply note that this would suggest that the Sargonid dynasty found in the Sumerian king lists likely dates to the 1st millennium BC. It would also tend to suggest that Sargon of Akkad was probably one and the same as 8th century BC king of ...
100. Problems of Early Anatolian History Part I [Catastrophism & Ancient History Journal $]
... Kura-Arax river valleys in an area known as Hanigalbat or Subartu to the Assyrians. Only one thing can be sure about the elusive Mitannians, and that is that their language is a mixture of Hurrian and many Indo-European loan words. 12 The Indo-Europeans who influenced the Mitannian language apparently did not come from Europe but from southern Russia by way of the Caucasus area, and their language was from the "Satem" or eastern wing of the Indo-European family. 13 It should also be noted that these Indo-Europeans were more lndic than Mede or Persian, their names reflecting certain Indian gods, like Shiva for example. Velikovsky claims that the Mitannians were actually the early Medes, since his chronological revisions bring the two peoples together in time and also because Matiene or Mantiane was the name of a lake and a province of Media during the Classical period. 14 Hewsen attempts to connect the names of the kings of the Mitannians with those of the Medes given by Moses of Khoren and also claims, as do the majority of scholars, that Daiukku of the Assyrian annals of 715 ...
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