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45 pages of results.
61. Troy and Gordion [Velikovsky Archive Website]
... The end of Troy VI, identified by Wilhelm Doerpfeld as the Ilion of the siege, was found to have been contemporaneous with the mid-Eighteenth Dynasty of the Egyptian New Kingdom, and was therefore also too early for the Trojan War. Carl Blegen identified forty-six layers of occupation of the mound of Hissarlik, the Troy of the excavators, but divided them between the nine strata of occupation classified by Doerpfeld. Troy VI was a well-built fortress; Blegen specified eight separate levels of occupation in this stratum alone. It ended in a violent earthquake. Blegen, however, looked for a fortress that fell not due to an earthquake, but in a siege and assault; thus he identified the Troy sung by Homer as Troy VIIa. The sixth city of Troy is conventionally placed in the fourteenth-thirteenth centuries before the present era, a dating which ultimately depends on Egyptian chronology. Here an observation by Rodney Young, the excavator of the Phrygian capital Gordion, 1 needs to be cited: ? In their batter as well as their masonry construction the walls of the Phrygian Gate ...
62. Thera and the Exodus: the Cause and the Effect [SIS C&C Workshop $]
... Santorini's island neighbours, quite apart from the North African coast.' He gives the reasons as due to misinterpretation or subsequent erosion, also adding that Santorini 'may have generated numerous, relatively small tidal waves, rather than a few, but larger ones' because 'the relation between eruptions and tsunamis is not completely understood'. It has been found that significant vertical movements of the sea bed cause masses of water to be physically impelled radially away from the point of origin of the seismic shock. Movements of this type, due to earthquake, submarine landslide or volcanic activity, occur most frequently in the Pacific Ocean along the coasts of Japan, the Aleutian Islands and South America. Normally, a tsunami in the open ocean has a barely perceptible amplitude and a very long wavelength. Successive waves travel at up to 643 kph and may be 5 to 60 minutes apart. As the speed is proportional to the depth of water, the waves slow down when they approach coastal areas, but the height increases [6. Thera is the most southerly of the Cyclades ...
63. Velikovsky's Mythology, Accepting the Premise... [SIS C&C Workshop $]
... is. Certainly Sun, Moon and other prominent heavenly bodies are seen in this way, but so are many other things, such as the sky, mountains, water, fire, rocks, plants, animals, etc. It may be argued that Velikovsky's premise referred to major gods: yet, with the possible exception of Sun and Moon, there were thought to be more important 'spirits' than the planets (which have not always brought sudden danger, even accepting Velikovskian theories). Drought, lack of soil fertility, earthquake, etc., all presented a much more frequent threat of sudden death and disaster, and all needed regular appeasement. Cosmogonic myths, being some of the most ancient, clearly demonstrate that the oldest gods stood for the big, immediate realities: fire, earth, sky and water, sometimes Sun and Moon. The myth of the birth of the brothers Zeus, Poseidon and Hades, for example, refers to sky, sea and earth- not planets. Doubtless these great, early gods sometimes evolved so that some ...
64. The Walls Of Jericho [SIS C&C Review $]
... . During the last hundred years the site of ancient Jericho has been one of the most thoroughly excavated in Palestine, mainly by teams led by Sellin and Watzinger in 1908-11, John Garstang in 1930-36 and Kathleen Kenyon in 1952-56. Not surprisingly, one of the main objectives of each team has been to identify the walls of the city which fell at the time of the Conquest. Sellin and Watzinger reported in 1913 that they had found a series of walls around the summit of the mound which appeared to have been destroyed by an earthquake and which they believed to be those which fell to Joshua and his Israelite army (2). Gerstang in turn discovered a double line of walls around the city which had been overthrown violently, apparently by earthquake. The bricks of the wall had tilted outward, adding force to his argument that there had been a violent destruction due to natural causes (3). On the basis of the absence of Mycenaean type pottery, Garstang dated the fall of these walls to c. 1400 BC, a date wholly consistent with ...
65. Is all natural gas biological in origin? [Science Frontiers Website]
... Science Frontiers ONLINE No. 15: Spring 1981 Issue Contents Other pages Home Page Science Frontiers Online All Issues This Issue Sourcebook Project Sourcebook Subjects Is all natural gas biological in origin? T. Gold and S. Soter, from Cornell, have championed the theory that earthquake lights, sounds, and precursory animal activities may be due to abiogenic natural gases escaping from deep within the earth. Perhaps some petroleum and natural gas reserves have been created by primordial hydrocarbons working their way outward through the crust rather than by the geochemical alteration of biological materials. Perhaps almost all petroleum is abiogenic-- some Russian scientists hold this view! Western scientists are almost unani-mous that natural gas and oil are bio genic with maybe a touch of upwelling abiogenic hydrocarbons. A major reason given for this stance is that the biogenic theory has been so productive in locating hydrocarbon reserves. This, of course, leaves the earthquake lights and sounds still unexplained. (Anonymous; "Abiogenic Methane? Pro and Con," Geotimes, 25:17, November 1980.) Comment. ...
66. Positive Ion Emission Before Earthquakes May Affect Animals [Science Frontiers Website]
... May Affect Animals Both folklore and modern observations are emphatic that many animals become agitated prior to earthquakes. Cats car-ry their kittens outdoors; cattle panic in their barns; dogs bark for no apparent reason; and even some humans become restless. Tributsch notes that similar behaviors also accompany certain weather situations, such as the Alpine foehn and Near East sharav, which are characterized by high concentrations of positive ions. The unusual "fogs" and luminous displays preceding some earthquakes may also have electrical origins. In essence, Tributsch has reviewed many earthquake precursors and suggests that most can be explained in terms of positive ion emission from the earth due to pre-quake strains. (Tributsch, Helmut; "Do Aerosol Anomalies Precede Earthquakes?" Nature, 276: 606, 1978.) Reference. Even humans are sensitive to "earthquake weather." See Section GQW in: Earthquakes, Tides. Unidentified Sounds. More information on this Catalog volume here. From Science Frontiers #6, February 1979.© 1979-2000 William R. Corliss Other Sites of Interest SIS. Catastrophism, ...
67. The End of the Early Bronze Age [Velikovsky Archive Website]
... waves, and other signs of a natural disaster. Among the greatest of these took place at the end of the Old Kingdom in Egypt. At the occasion of his visit to Troy, then under excavation by Carl Blegen, he became aware that Troy, too, had been repeatedly destroyed by natural catastrophes at the same times when Ras Shamra was destroyed. The distance from the Dardanelles near which the mound of Troy lies to Ras Shamra in Syria is about 600 miles on a straight line. In modern annals of seismology no earthquake is known to have occurred covering an area of such an extent. He then compared the findings of these two places with signs of earthquakes in numerous other localities of the ancient East. After painstaking work he came to the conclusion that more than once in historical times the entire region had been shaken by prodigious earthquakes. As to the destruction that ended the Early Bronze Age, Schaeffer wrote: There is not for us the slightest doubt that the conflagration of Troy II corresponds to the catastrophe that made an end to the habitations ...
68. The Identification of Troy [Velikovsky Archive Website]
... and which he confidently identified as the fortress of Priam, was in fact much more ancient: it was as old as the Pyramids, and it met its fiery end at the same time as the Egyptian Old Kingdom collapsed into anarchy. The finding of Mycenaean pottery in Troy VI made Wilhelm Dörpfeld, Schliemann ? s pupil and leader of the new campaign of excavations, claim that city as the most likely to have been the Ilion of Homer. (4) Doerpfeld found evidence that Troy VI had been destroyed by a violent earthquake; the damage was partly repaired and the city rebuilt, though on a much smaller scale. Such evidence, in the view of Carl Blegen, who conducted the most recent excavations on the site, could hardly be reconciled with the Homeric account of a city whose walls were breached by an enemy after a lengthy siege and which, on being plundered and denuded of its inhabitants, was for a long time left deserted. Blegen disagreed with Dörpfeld about the identity of the Homeric city; looking for a fortress that fell not ...
69. Volcanism And Catastrophic Mythology [SIS C&C Workshop $]
... Crete. Thera could only have been responsible for both destructions if either, there were two eruptions about 50 years apart, or the caldera collapse occurred about 50 years after the original ash-producing explosion. Field work on the ash layers on Santorini shows no evidence of either possibility. Calculations of tsunami sizes also indicate that these would have been too small, besides which, sites on the south of the island such as Phaistos, would be unaffected. Pichner and Schiering conclude that the final destruction of Minoan Crete was caused by a regional earthquake which could not, therefore, have given rise to the Atlantis legend. It is unlikely that the caldera collapse of Santorini itself gave rise to the legend either, because the inhabitants had fled after initial earthquake damage, some time before the eruption buried Akrotiri in ash. Regarding ash fall-out, analysis of deep sea cores (2) has shown that the freshly fallen thickness on Crete was at most 5cm, and this only across north-east Crete. Studies of damage caused in historical volcanic eruptions (3) indicates that ash layers ...
70. The Great Comet Venus [Aeon Journal $]
... curiosity Forrest simply accepts the guess of Alexander von Humboldt, "who suggested that the 'smoke' related to the volcano Orizaba, situated to the east of the city Cholula, and whose glow, when seen in the distance, resembled or was symbolically related to the rising Morning Star." (19) Forrest was apparently satisfied with the first guess he uncovered. "All we have are some sixteenth century records which say, every so often, that the star smoked, but since the smoking seems frequently to be intertwined with earthquake activity...Humboldt's assumption seems reasonable." (20) With that stated, Forrest moved on, never returning to the issue of the Aztec "smoking star." A quite different approach would have been to explore the possibility of a broader Venus-comet association to see where the available evidence leads. Guided by this intent, Forrest would have quickly found, for example, that Aztec association of "earthquake activity" with "smoking stars" belonged to the general mythology of the comet among the Aztecs. Thus, with respect ...
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