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51. Chapter 1 [Alternative Science Website]
... as late as 1807. One of the first professional scientists to take meteorites seriously was German chemist and metallurgist Karl Reichenbach. Reichenbach made quite a name for himself in Germany's embryonic chemical industry. He was the first chemist to isolate important materials by distilling coal tar, the method by which he discovered creosote and paraffin, the principal lighting oil of the nineteenth ... to believe in the extraterrestrial origin of a meteorite that fell in Weston, Connecticut, as late as 1807. One of the first professional scientists to take meteorites seriously was German chemist and metallurgist Karl Reichenbach. Reichenbach made quite a name for himself in Germany's embryonic chemical industry. He was the first chemist to isolate important materials by distilling coal tar, the ... the idea that stones could fall out of the sky as thunderbolts was denounced as an unscientific absurdity by the Academie, Europe's leading rational authority. Antoine Lavoisier, father of modern chemistry, told his fellow Academicians, 'Stones cannot fall from the sky, because there are no stones in the sky!' Museums all over Europe threw out their cherished meteorite specimens ...
52. Viva Lamarck: Renewed Discussion on the Inheritance of Acquired Characteristics [Aeon Journal $]
... (106) A chemically induced mutation, it should be noted, would be an acquired character according to Weismann's original formulations. Years later, upon the discovery of radioactive and chemical mutagens, Lamarckian critics argued that such mutations proved Weismannism false, at least in its strict form. (And indeed it is well-known that these mutations were originally regarded as being ... fate of his ideas. A cumbersome and disjointed style of writing, a penchant for speculation and offering grandiose interpretations of the various natural sciences, a reliance upon outmoded understandings of chemistry and physics, all conspired to render Lamarck's views unpalatable to the majority of his scientific peers. (20) Here again, however, it is well-known that other pioneers in ... applied strictly to multicellular life forms and was based on the assumption that no new changes could arise in the germ-plasm once that level of development was reached. (106) A chemically induced mutation, it should be noted, would be an acquired character according to Weismann's original formulations. Years later, upon the discovery of radioactive and chemical mutagens, Lamarckian critics ...
53. CHAOS AND CREATION: CHAPTER 05: SOLARIA BINARIA [Quantavolution Website]
... ," (1971) 595e gives 10 A. U. as the average separation. 15. 595e. 16. But see Juergens (1976); "The bulk chemistries of both Jupiter and Venus are now unknown." (15) Its mass could contain a rocky core of some 40 earth-masses or else would have to achieve a metallic hydrogen ... arc. THE MAGNETIC TUBE AND PLANETS Around this gigantic axial current, a magnetic field would be induced. This field was composed of ionized gases and contained a number of the chemical elements in atomic and molecular form, including especially water in its three forms. The field rotated around the central axis. Within the outer envelope of the rotating gases were a ... was at least twice as massive. From the radiation it emits, Jupiter is thought to have a subsurface temperature somewhere between 12,000 and 50,000 C. Its chemistry resembles more the gaseous Sun than the inner planets, or even its own satellites; it consists largely of hydrogen in various states, and holds some water [16. Furthermore ...
54. Thoth Vol. III, No. 12 Aug 31, 1999 [Thoth Website]
... the much larger volume of Martian rock that would have been removed from deeper levels by an electrical discharge capable of creating the stupendous Valles Marineris (the deeper material would lack the chemical signature of surface material identified by the Viking probes of the soil). >From what Wal has described dynamically in electrical interactions, I can imagine active transport of atmosphere and ... interested to see the isotopic makeup of the chlorine at Io. On earth the ratio is Cl37:Cl35= 1:3 NASA: The discovery also has implications for the chemistry of Io's atmosphere, he said. On Earth, relatively small amounts of chlorine from human-made CFC's play a major role in breaking down fragile molecules like ozone in the atmosphere. ... In fact, Io seems to have a higher proportion of chlorine in its atmosphere than any other object in the solar system," said Schneider. THORNHILL: Chlorine is highly chemically reactive and so would not be expected in atmospheres unless it is being replenished (like the ozone layer on Earth). NASA: "The huge volcanoes on Io are similar ...
55. William H. Stiebing, Jr., and Immanuel Velikovsky [The Velikovskian $]
... it is difficult to believe that sufficient quantities of suitable substances would have appeared at the Cytherean [Venusian surface to mop up anywhere near the amount of oxygen possible. Indeed, chemical evidence from the sulfur-bearing gases in the lower atmosphere of Venus can be shown to indicate that the surface rocks today do not contain the maximum amount of oxygen possible. (34 ... , Phobos orbits around Mars more rapidly than the planet rotates and thus could not be born in that orbit. (45) The composition of these moons, in terms of chemistry and density, is so different from Mars that it is impossible to believe that Mars would form from one type of material while the moons born with it, at the same ... studied many times, most recently by Cyril Ponnamperuma, at the Laboratory of Chemical Evolution --University of Maryland. Although we are far from being able to create life directly from inorganic chemicals, it is clear that any of the molecular building blocks of living matter are produced in these experiments. Remarkably, the murky brew that is manufactured by these experiments has a ...
56. The Nature of Venus' Heat [The Velikovskian $]
... , it is difficult to believe that sufficient quantities of suitable substances could have appeared at the cytherean [Venusian surface to mop up anywhere near the amount of water. Indeed, chemical evidence from the sulfur-bearing gases in the lower atmosphere of Venus...indicate that the surface rock today does not contain the maximum amount of oxygen possible. (20) The germane ... Young, 1973; Pollack et al., 1974). The clouds of Venus are composed of approximately 75% solution of sulfuric acid. This identification is consistent with the chemistry of the Venus atmosphere, in which hydrofluoric and hydrochloric acid have also been found; with the real part of the refractive index deduced from polarimetry, which is known to three ... the cloud deck and down to the surface --and their search ha[d come up dry.... Evidence of a dry Venus may force researchers to consider whether other chemicals could create and sustain the planet's greenhouse effect, said David Crisp of the Jet Propulsion Laboratory,...who co-authored the report. (58) Hence, the critical, second ...
57. Chapter VI: Dating Methods and Misapplications [The Age of Velikovsky] [The Age of Velikovsky] [Books]
... May, 1972, issue of Pensee and this discussion precipitated the short series of letters described below. Dr. G. W. Van Oosterhout of the Department of Chemistry and Chemical Engineering, Delft University of Technology (The Netherlands) wrote to Pensee in 1973 stating that he checked the published radiocarbon data from the British Museum but could not find any reference ... calibration of the radiocarbon dating technique depends on radiocarbon dating. Information concerning the bristlecone pine was recently reviewed by H. C. Sorensen. 2 Dr. Sorensen is both a chemist and scientific advisor to the president of United Medical Laboratories in Portland, Oregon. The following notes about the bristlecone pine calibration are taken from Sorensen's article. A typical growth cycle ... in the May, 1972, issue of Pensee and this discussion precipitated the short series of letters described below. Dr. G. W. Van Oosterhout of the Department of Chemistry and Chemical Engineering, Delft University of Technology (The Netherlands) wrote to Pensee in 1973 stating that he checked the published radiocarbon data from the British Museum but could not find ...
58. The Inexact Science of Radiometric Dating [SIS C&C Review $]
... of mineral ages had been reasonable accurately determined. A major deterrent existed in that many minerals contained only very small percentages of both parent and daughter elements, thus posing problems for chemical determinations utilising standard analytic chemistry techniques (1). However, since that date, with the rapid advancement of technology in industrialised countries, the measurement of minute amounts of elements ... their respective isotopes has become commonplace, largely through the use of mass spectrometers which incorporate high vacuum and ionisation techniques (2). Current instrumentation may also utilise digital counting and this leads to even greater precision. With the widespread innovation of such machinery radiometric dating has been given a great impetus and literally thousands of mineral ages have been determined as a result ... appears to be defective. There is in fact nothing inviolable about decay rates since it has been found possible to alter isotopes sensitive to change in atomic structure. Changes were effected chemically on beryllium-7 and an excited state of technetium-99. Small changes can also be effected by pressure (41). Our understanding of decay rates is very limited. For example, ...
59. Thoth Vol. V, No 1 Jan 15, 2001 [Thoth Website]
... back into the stone age." One reason I find this possibility incredible is the extensive infrastructure required to create nuclear weapons, and the intense contamination caused by nuclear reactors, chemical plants (for making conventional explosives), electronics factories, etc. As far as I know, no evidence of such ancient toxic sites exists. And the nuclear explanation cannot ... ;, many of which would react violently in the Earth's Oxygen-Nitrogen atmosphere. It is helpful to understand that for the non-metallic elements Oxygen and Nitrogen are the second and third most chemically reactive elements behind Fluorine. A chunk of material coming in could be partly elemental Phosphorous, Selenium or Sulphur, for instance. Even vaporized Fe has a tremendous reactive potential when ... (different pH, different chemical environment, etc.) where it left solution and precipitated. Dinosaur bones back then might have contained (and apparently did contain) the right chemicals to cause the precipitation. I think radioactive dinosaur bones are well known and the cause understood, although I once did a quick search to confirm this and found that the literature ...
60. RECOLLECTIONS OF A FALLEN SKY - VELIKOVSKY AND CULTURAL AMNESIA : CHAPTER : [Quantavolution Website]
... well. How do we operationalize the concept "fear"? How many stones of the Cathedral of Notre Dame were laid by fear? Whatever stimulates in an organism reactions of chemical and perceived malaise, avoidance, and hostility produces fear. The greater the scope and intensity of the stimulus (which we may call deprivation, also) the greater the fear ... somewhere in the organism like a slab of fat or a quart of blood. Presently, a fear-bank is a fear-capacity, that is: a capacity of a system to respond chemically and behaviorally faster, more intensively, and more extensively to a fear-producing stimulus, plus a corresponding capacity to perceive fear-stimulating events in the environment ever more finely. The response is ... Since D-affect has been most pronounced in the development of affects in all value areas of life, the accumulated D-affect is greater than any single source of fear and continues to supply chemicals and behaviors when these other sources are stimulated. In this sense, then, a person today responds to the disasters of several- thousand years ago. There have been 77 ...
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