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41. Interdisciplinary Indiscipline [SIS C&C Review $]
... . Nevertheless, in his scenario there is oxygen, there is incomplete combustion, there are electrical discharges and unfiltered ultraviolet light. (The latter two are known to drive unfamiliar chemical reaction producing organic compounds, including sugars [45. Ozonolysis is another conceivable chemical pathway [46). In any case, the manna idea is an ornamental addition to the ... '" [41 Three thousand years would seem ample time to grow or repair even the largest stalactite. As an afterthought, having presumably demolished Velikovsky's major theses, Asimov the chemist takes him to task for writing that "the tails of comets are composed mainly of carbon and hydrogen gases" [42 and for quietly slipping from hydrocarbons to 'carbohydrate' when ... found it was indeed rhetoric. The following example is typical of Sagan's approach: "In the 1930's and early 1940's, the only astronomer in the world concerning himself with planetary chemistry was the late Rupert Wildt." [3 Wildt had proposed oily hydrocarbons in Jupiter's atmosphere and carbohydrates in that of Venus, both facets of Velikovsky's theory. Sagan effectively accuses ...
42. The Importance of Outsiders in Science [SIS C&C Review $]
... , then liquid chlorine, later liquid carbon dioxide, using this gas to liquefy others, and he also isolated benzene. His laws of electrolysis established the link between electrical and chemical affinity; he gave us the terms 'anode', 'cathode', 'anion', 'cation', 'electrode' and 'electrolyte'; in 1821 he began experiments with electromagnetism and ... recognised the Aurora Borealis as an electrical phenomenon and speculated on the existence of the ionosphere. Antoine Laurent Lavoisier (1743-1794), occupation tax collector. He is famous as a chemist, naming the part of air used in combustion 'oxygen' and destroying the then-prevalent theory of phlogiston. He demonstrated that water is a compound of hydrogen and oxygen; that organic ... 1987-1995). Summary Outsiders- people from outside the discipline- have contributed enormously during the history of science. To scientific outsiders we owe many of the laws of physics and chemistry, the foundation of new disciplines, innumerable inventions and vital discoveries. Herewith a roll-call of the most famous and important, with a discussion of the implications for our interdisciplinary studies ...
43. The Determinants of Scientific Behaviour [SIS C&C Review $]
... the significance of links to outside interests. In explaining the observed levels of ozone in the stratosphere, a problem became apparent in the late 1960's. Existing theory, which utilised chemical and photochemical reactions involving oxygen compounds, predicted roughly twice as much ozone as actually observed. (Results of both theory and observation were very uncertain, so that it was disputable ... of portions of the scientific community to Johnston's argument that oxides of nitrogen from SSTs might dangerously reduce levels of ozone in the stratosphere. One argument used was that Johnston was a chemist, and (therefore) his consideration of meteorological effects in his calculations was oversimple (therefore making his results overestimates of the effect of oxides of nitrogen from SSTs).* ... use the scientific method, and is not willing to take part in rational scientific discourse. Specifically, his ideas are not compatible with a number of the fundamentals of physics and chemistry". Parenthetically, the scope and unorthodoxy of Velikovsky's work is so great that any attempt to introduce it through journals would have been doomed to failure (see Dolby, 1975 ...
44. Monitor [SIS C&C Review $]
... like that of its neighbours Earth and Venus, where has it all gone? One possible explanation was that an early carbon dioxide atmosphere became locked up in carbon sediments due to chemical weathering but unfortunately surveys of the Martian surface have failed to find such sediments. So another suggestion is that impacts during the early days of the Solar System knocked the atmosphere off ... rates, and obviously knew how to sterilise wounds. The diets of ancient people are often reconstructed from an analysis of their hair but some British archaeologists are now arguing that hair chemistry can change after centuries of burial and such results should be regarded with caution. Syphilis is supposed to have been brought to Europe from the New World after the Columbus contacts and ... found in the North Pacific ocean in the high-iridium clay layer which is associated with the cretaceous impact catastrophe, indicates with what force the impactor was blown apart. It is also chemically indicative of an asteroid, not a comet. The fires which are thought to have been part of the post-impact catastrophe could have been the result of lightning igniting huge amounts of ...
45. On Celestial Mechanics [Pensee]
... with electrical energy (Cv 2 /2) enough above its normal cohesion energy [[ SIGMA/ i n i e i, where n i is the number of (chemical) bonds of type I and e i the strength or energy of the i th bond to overcome the chemical binding forces. The vast differences in the real interactions (said ... Columbia) argued that the observed potential gradient of the atmosphere (67 to 317 volts per meter over land and 128 volts per meter over sea according to Handbook of Physics and Chemistry) corresponds to a charge/mass ratio only about a thousandth enough to justify the suggestion that G 1/2 is not merely dimensionally but actually a real charge-to-mass ratio in ... of the Missing Neutrinos," Scientific American. (June 1972). p. 53. V PROFESSOR MELVIN A. COOK, founder and chairman of the board, IRECO Chemicals In his very interesting paper given at the Velikovsky Symposium at Lewis and Clark College (1), Ralph Juergens presented certain unconventional concepts pertaining to electrical charging of plasmas in interplanetary ...
46. Thoth Vol. VI, No 6 Sept 30, 2002 [Thoth Website]
... ; microscopic algae; bacteria; actinomycetes such as streptomyces which live like bacteria but reproduce like fungi. In these phenomena there is therefore an interaction of living organisms followed by various chemical reactions between the elements set up by biological transmutation." (Ibid. p. 28) Another geological action based upon bacterial action is reflected in various salt deposits. Through ... progress. You want to discover something new. That means you need to find the limits of the theory. You need failure. Phlogiston was a good idea. It brought chemistry out of the dark age of alchemy, which was actually pretty successful compared to what preceded it. But one day Joe Priestly was playing around with his chemistry set, and ... = Ca) since C also comes from the schists in the reaction Si= C+ O." (Kervran, Beekman, p. 73) Despite these anomalies, chemists generally have never tested for the source of all the calcium. Instead they ASSUMED it was "concentrated" or "precipitated" from calcium already in the vicinity, despite general ...
47. SOLARIA BINARIA: BIBILIOGRAPHY [Quantavolution Website]
... . sci., compt. rend. Academie des sciences, comptes rendus Am. Beh. Sci. American Behavioral Scientist A. Chem. Soc., J. American Chemical Society, Journal An. Rev. As. Ap. Annual Review of Astronomy and Astrophysics As. Soc. Pac., Publ.( Proc.) Astronomical Society of ... (30. Jan.), pp. 691-3 Strom, Robert, see Smith, B. A. Strutt, R. J. (1911), "A Chemically Active Modification of Nitrogen Produced by the Electric Discharge," Roy. Soc. (Lon.), Proc. A 85, pp. 219-29 Suhr, Elmer G. ... Lee, (Harvard: Cambridge, 1978 p. 13, 339b21) Armstrong, T. P., see Krimigis Arnold, James R. (1973, "The Chemist's Moon," Science and Public Affairs 29, no. 9 (Nov,), pp. 22-5 Arp. Halton C. (1975), "The Evolution of ...
48. Thoth Vol. IV, No 16 Oct 31, 2000 [Thoth Website]
... = mc2 Einstein's famous mathematical expression E=mc2 makes the very odd assumption that energy and matter are interchangeable. It seems simpler and more sensible to suggest that both nuclear and chemical energies are released or absorbed by the rearrangement of the resonant orbits of charged particles into new resonant orbits. It is then common sense to suggest that mass is the measured response ... and tell whether it represents a creature with two legs or six because the information that controls the assembly line may be external to the DNA. There is more to life than chemistry. The future in an Electric Universe looks very exciting indeed! (c)Wal Thornhill 2000 See the home of The Electric Universe at http://www.holoscience.com ** ... a modified force of gravity. It is particularly noticeable that many physics textbooks deal only cursorily, if at all, with electric dipole theory. The subject has been left to chemists who deal with molecular dipole forces and who have noted the similarity to gravity. This oversight may be recognized in future as a crucial failure of 20th century physics. The electrostatic ...
... near the Sun). A hot newly-formed planet may burn hydrogen for some time before it cools. The new planet passes through a super hot radioactive phase, followed by a chemical stage (Venus is presently in transition between these stages) allowing the free combination of elements, after which comes the cascade of biological evolution at temperatures below 200 deg. F ... 210 (1980), p. 1107. 58. For a complete list of all radioactive isotopes and the energies of formation from other elements, refer to a Handbook of Chemistry and Physics (look in the index under "Radioactive Elements"). Note that energies of particles necessary to initiate nuclear reactions in atomic nuclei depend more on the Coulomb barrier ... after which comes the cascade of biological evolution at temperatures below 200 deg. F. and evidently from a perfectly sterile medium. Thus, all planets begin with approximately the same chemicals in the same proportions and one should expect biological systems to reflect this. Some scientists claim that the effects of tidal friction are heating Io, whose surface is volcanically active. ...
50. The Cabots, the Lowells, and the Temperature of Venus [Kronos $]
... or misread. Communication requires cooperation of the recipient, and if the recipient wishes to misunderstand, he is surely free to do so. Nowhere in Velikovsky do I find a chemical theory comparable in audacity to the thesis regarding the creation of life by a bolt of lightning through an ammonia cloud, but again it all depends upon whose pot is cracked, ... and The Theory of Groups, Opening Note, Evariste Galois, Lillian R. Lieber, Galois Institute of Mathematics and Art, 1956. "John Newlands, a consulting London chemist, formulated in 1865 what he called a 'law of octaves' according to which if the elements are arranged in the order of their atomic weights, 'the number of analogous elements ... riches at a gathering of the Cabots and Lowells." Mark this well. There is a very great difference between being a good scientist, knowing your mathematics, physics, chemistry and biology, and being a scientific Cabot or Lowell. And a good scientist may be insulted or mocked with impunity, but not a scientific celebrity. The difference is very ...
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