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91. We Live Atop A Chemical Retort [Science Frontiers Website]
... Science Frontiers ONLINE No. 67: Jan-Feb 1990 Issue Contents Other pages Home Page Science Frontiers Online All Issues This Issue Sourcebook Project Sourcebook Subjects We Live Atop A Chemical Retort Far down there beneath our feet, the earth's chemicals are bubbling away, aided often by bacteria and other life forms. It's a dark world, but it's also hot, permeated by fluids, and possibly the abode of organisms we haven't dreamed of. Three hints of this nether world follow. Quick oil. Rather than ripening in deep strata for millions ... years, as per prevailing theory, some oil is being created in only a few thousand years in the vicinities of ocean-bottom chimneys. Dimesized oil globules have been sighted floating near these chimneys. Analysis of chunks broken off the chimneys by research submersibles reveal the presence of petroleum-like hydrocarbons that are less than 5000 years old. It is thought that high-temperature fluids percolating up through the sediments convert buried organic matter into oil very rapidly. (Monastersky, R.; "The Quick Recipe for a Soup of Black Gold," Science News ...
... the carbon-14 method due to Libby, depends on the thesis that radioactive decay constants are not altered significantly by any possible environmental influence. With the exception of internal conversion and K-capture decay processes which have been shown to be influenced in a minor way as a function of chemical state, radioactive decay constants are assumed in present nuclear theory to be substantially invariable even when the nuclei are subjected to massive environmental changes. Thus much of the earlier published literature (though largely confined to alpha-emitters studied with relatively primitive detection and analytical instrumentation) tends ... Standards, Section A, vol. 4 (1930): 595. 7. Cf. J. F. Emery, et al., Nuclear Science and Engineering 48 (1972): 319. 8. J. L. Anderson, Journal of Physical Chemistry 76 (1972): 3603. 9. J. L. Anderson and G. W. Spangler, Journal of Physical Chemistry 77 (1973): 3114. 10. J. L. Anderson and G. W. Spangler, Bulletin of the ...
93. Beetles Make Scents [Science Frontiers Website]
... Termite nests frequently host foreign species that seem to be accepted as fellow termites. Can't termites recognize the invaders? The authors believe that termites probably recognize one another by specific hydrocarbon labels synthesized on their cuticles. If the alien species were to be somehow marked with similar chemical identifiers, the blind termites might not know the difference. Howard et al think this may be the case with a species of beetle often found integrated into termite society. By chemi-cally analyzing beetle and termite cuticles, they have found both wearing the same hydrocarbon labels ... Furthermore, the beetles synthesize their own chemical masks. This is an astounding instance of parallel or convergent evolution between remotely related species. (Howard, R.W. et al, "Chemical Mimicry as an Integrating Mechanism....," Science, 210:431, 1980.) Comment. Synthesizing exactly the right hydrocarbons was certainly a great stroke of good fortune for the beetles! From Science Frontiers #14, Winter 1981.© 1981-2000 William R. Corliss Other Sites of Interest SIS. Catastrophism, archaeoastronomy, ancient ...
94. Life-creation from a different perspective [Science Frontiers Website]
... ) of energy required for the synthesis of complex organic chemicals. First, they point to the steady drizzle of tiny, organic-rich particles drifting down to earth from cometary debris. These particles, which even carry spacesynthesized amino acids down to the earth's surface, seem likely chemical precursors of life. However, the atmosphere is also a potential source of prebiotic chemicals-- providing energy sources are available. Chyba and Sagan suggest as sources: lightning, ultraviolet radiation, and the shock energy derived from meteorite/asteroid/comet impacts. ... . Chyba and C. Sagan, in a major review article in Nature, see a two-fold problem: (1) identifying the source of the raw materials; and (2) identifying the source(s) of energy required for the synthesis of complex organic chemicals. First, they point to the steady drizzle of tiny, organic-rich particles drifting down to earth from cometary debris. These particles, which even carry spacesynthesized amino acids down to the earth's surface, seem likely chemical precursors of life. However, the atmosphere is ...
95. Back to the Drawing Board? [Kronos $]
... Velikovskian prediction held that hydrocarbon and derivitive gases would be present in the Venusian atmosphere, and the first results seem to point strongly to confirmation of these expectations as well. Prof. Thomas Donahue, one of the Pioneer experimenters, described the Venusian atmosphere as "a chemical soup". He went on to express his belief that "there are some other chemicals present even more important than water vapor in inhibiting the escape of heat radiation". In 1963 Dr. L. D. Kaplan of NASA deduced the presence of hydrocarbons ... because of their heat-reflecting properties! The most striking disclosure by Prof. Donahue, however, is his statement that "as we approached the surface of the planet from a distance about ten miles above on the night-side, a faint glow was detected that got brighter and brighter and brighter until the probes touched down. That glow, I think, is almost literally the surface and some of the gases in the atmosphere on fire. Chemical reactions that produce light, I think, are occurring in that high-temperature environment where many reactive gases ...
96. On The Origin Of Tektites [Kronos $]
... igneous rocks is not so drastically demarcated as to render them entirely incompatible. In fact, "a tektite generally resembles an unusually potassic intermediate igneous rock that has been diluted with too much SiO 2 ." (12) "It has often been suggested that these chemical peculiarities are the result of a sedimentary origin: the excess silica is attributed to mechanical differentiation of a sediment, with enhancement of the quartz content; the general deficiency of alkalis to leaching; and the potassic character to the tendency of clays to hold potash. ... effort to dispel the lunar origin of tektites. Basing their study on the chemical composition of sawdust from the same lunar sample that O'Keefe had earlier analyzed, they came to the conclusion that "no fragment or sawdust of rock 12013 that has been analyzed to date is chemically similar to tektite glass" even though they had to admit that "the abundances of major elements in tektite J2 [a javanite are similar to those rock 12013" (italics added).(15) The objection of the trace element discrepancies, however, ...
97. Tektites [Thunderbolts Website]
... tektite types. Strewn fields of tektites, occurring within defined areas, are suggestive of regional, not global, events. The majority of specialists today believe that tektites, though originating on Earth, were blasted out of terrestrial soil by meteoric impact. They identify the chemical composition of various tektites with that of Earth ’ s crustal rocks. Reinforcing this interpretation was the discovery that some tektites harbored spherules of nickel-iron, the constituent material of many meteorites. Additionally, the many samples of lunar soil returned by the Apollo missions did not ... the building blocks for tektites, whereas a primary base in terrestrial chemistry is increasingly evident. For example, the isotopic composition of argon inclusions in sealed bubbles suggests a terrestrial origin, according to many specialists. Prof. S.R. Taylor, in his book "Solar System Evolution", writes: "The source of tektites has been demonstrated beyond reasonable doubt as being due to melted terrestrial (usually sedimentary) rock splashed during meteorite impact. The whole argument over a lunar vs. terrestrial origin of tektites was an interesting example of ...
98. Cosmic Soot And Organic Asteroids [Science Frontiers Website]
... tars wafting down upon the surface of a suitable planet might initiate or accelerate life processes. Cosmic soot. A 70-year-old astronomical enigma is the origin of the DIBs (Diffuse Interstellar absorption Bands). These dark absorption bands in stellar spectra have never been correlated with known chemical compounds. Now, L. Allamandola and F. Salama (NASA-Ames) find that the DIBs may be due to polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons! A more digestible descriptor would be "soot," like that found in automobile exhaust and on your barbecued steak. ( ... Issues This Issue Sourcebook Project Sourcebook Subjects Cosmic Soot And Organic Asteroids Just as we were getting used to carbonaceous chondrites and tarry comets, we have been hit with cosmic soot and organic asteroids. Truly, it seems as if the universe is one vast factory of complex chemicals. This is not a trivial observation, for it betrays a synthesizing, efflorescent cosmos rather than a universe slowly succumbing to the deepfreezing Second Law of Thermodynamics. Any of these soots and tars wafting down upon the surface of a suitable planet might initiate or accelerate ...
99. QUANTAVOLUTION AND CATASTROPHE: PART 5: The Scope of Quantavolution [Quantavolution Website]
... change in nature change of environment change, attributes of change, cosmic change, human channel, river& stream Channelled Scablands, WA chaos Chardin, Teilhard de charge, electric chariot charisma charlatan Charon Charriere,-.-. chauvanism Chela, serra de Chellean man chemical bond chemical bonding chemical compound chemical element chemical marker, strata chemical reaction chemistry Chernoble cherubim chess Chetwynd, Thomas Cheyenne mounds, WY Chicago Fire chidren's songs& stories childhood children's rhymes chiliasm chimpanzee China Chinese choreography Chinook wind Chipewa indians Chiron chlorophyl Christian, Christianity christmas tree ... chronology chronology, historical chronology, natural history chronometry, techniques Chubb crater, Quebec church architecture Churchill-Sempel, Ellen cinnamon cinnebar circle, stone (lithic) circular logic circular structure circum-Pacific pyric belt circumcision cither, kitharis city planning civilizations cladistic Clark, D. M. Clark, J. D. classification clastic sediment clay Clayton, Robert, N. Clearwater lake, crater cleavage of Earth climate climate, polar climate, temperate climate, tropical climatology clothing cloud club, (wooden) Clube, S. Victor coal coastal feature coastal landforms ...
100. Isotopic Anomalies in Chronometric Science [SIS C&C Review $]
... . D. D. Harkness and R. Burleigh: "Possible C14-enrichment in high altitude wood", Archaeometry 16 (1974), 120-127. 17. T. I. Taylor and H. C. Urey: "Fractionation of Lithium and Potassium isotopes by chemical exchange with zeolites", J. Chem. Phys. 6 (1938), 429. 18. L. T. Aldrich, L. F. Hertzog, W. K. Holyk, F. B. Whiting and L. H. Ahrens ... From: SIS Review Vol II No 4 (Spring 1978) Home¦ Issue Contents Isotopic Anomalies in Chronometric Science Don Robins Dr G. V. Robins is an inorganic chemist; his Ph.D. involved research into magneto-chemistry. The relative abundance of isotopes of an element in a sample often gives a clue to the sample's history. Radioactive decay is only one of the ways in which an isotopic abundance can be caused to deviate from the conventional norm. This has particular relevance to the Bristlecone Pine recalibration of radiocarbon dates. Introduction ...
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