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69 pages of results.
41. When Earth Was Not Yet Created: An Account of Sumerian Cosmogony [Catastrophism & Ancient History Journal $]
... itself was born out of a catastrophic planetary collision within our Solar System. This belief, a central element in all Mesopotamian writings, rituals, and religions, was especially expressed in the form of a long epic poem publicly read at the climax of the annual New Year Festival. The tale (or information) related in this epic has been traced to Sumer, the first recognized civilization, which began in Mesopotamia nearly 6000 years ago. But the full text of the epic is known from its version in the Akkadian (" Babylonian") language. In the manner of the ancient custom it was named Enuma elish after its opening words: Enuma elish la nabu shamamu When in the heights Heaven had not been named Shaplitu ammatum shuma la zakrat And below, firm ground (Earth) had not been called The text, 2 well known to scholars as the "Epic of Creation," has nevertheless been viewed by them as mythological (in league with Zeus' battles with Typhon), allegorical (an archetype St. George fighting the dragon), ...
... 73,...,[7 and we can infer the additive series 1, 6, 7, 13.... 225, 364, 589... .[ 8 There must be more; these can be shown in Table 1. Fascinatingly, a conclusion reached here is congruous to that of Douglas, that while Babylonians perceived integral fractions essentially throughout, it is tempting to speculate whether the Babylonians also understood the synodic equation and whether they were calculating as well as observing orbital periods and synodic periods. Babylonian mathematics used tables of reciprocals and concerned itself with various types of the mean, including the harmonic mean- all of which appear to bear upon the synodic equation.[9 Babylonians may have become more concerned with operational data than with observational data, particularly if the operational data consisted of integral fractions and the observational data did not: Babylonians should not be faulted for failing to derive wholly accurate observational data.[10 Table 1 is a columnar display of various additive series including Fibonacci and Lucas, and in which a row ...
43. Seventeen [Velikovsky Archive Website]
... all the fountains of the great deep broken up, and the windows of heaven were opened.? (1) Five months later, according to the Book of Genesis, on the seventeenth day of the seventh month, the ark rested upon Ararat. In Egyptian religious belief Osiris was drowned ? on the seventeenth day of the month Athyr.? (2) The fast for Tammuz, commemorating his descent into the netherworld, began on the seventeenth of the month named for him. (3) Although the similarity of the Babylonian and Biblical versions of the story of the Deluge was repeatedly stressed, the significance of the number seventeen in the story of Tammuz in relation to the same number in the book of Genesis was not emphasized, or even noticed. The feast of Saturnalia began ? always on the 17th of December ? and with time, in imperial Rome, when it was celebrated for three consecutive days, it began on the fifteenth and continued for two more days, until the seventeenth. (4) The connection between the number seventeen and ...
44. The Worship of the Moon [Velikovsky Archive Website]
... The Worship of the Moon Because of its size and also because of the events which accompanied the first appearance of the Moon, many ancient peoples regarded the Moon as the chief of the two luminaries. ? The sun was of smaller importance than the moon in the eyes of the Babylonian astrologers.? (1) The Assyrians and the Chaldeans referred to the time of the Moon-god as the oldest period in the memory of the people: before other planetary gods came to dominate the world ages, the Moon was the supreme deity. Such references are found in the inscriptions of Sargon II (ca. -720) (2) and Nabonidus (ca. -550). (3) The Babylonian Sin the Moon was a very ancient deity: Mount Sinai owes its name to Sin. The Moon, appearing as a body larger than the Sun, was endowed by the imagination of the peoples with a masculine role, while the Sun was assigned a feminine role. Many languages reserved a masculine name for the Moon. (4) It was probably ...
45. Old-Babylonian and Persian Terra-Cotta Reliefs [Aeon Journal $]
... duplications of the well-known periods of the first millennium BCE. (1) Thus, I claim that the Sargonic Akkadians (2400 BCE onwards) correspond to the pre-Medish Assyrians (750 BCE onwards), who should not be mixed up with the Sargonids (conventionally dated to the same period but stratigraphically belonging to the Persian period). (2) The Neo-Sumerians (2150 BCE onwards) correspond to the Neo-Babylonian/Late Chaldeans (625 BCE onwards), whereas the Old-Babylonian Empire of the Mardu (2000 BCE onwards) represents the Babylonian satrapy of the Persian Empire (540 BCE onwards). The Persians were also known as Mardians (Amardians), after the tribe of Cyrus the Great. (3) Note also the account of Nicholas of Damascus: "Cyrus was the son of a poor Persian of the ill-famed Mardian clan." (4) (The very same first millennium BCE nations which are duplicated as ghost empires of the third/early second millennium appear a third time as ghost empires of the second millennium BCE. For more on the ...
46. On Mars and Pestilence [Aeon Journal $]
... From: Aeon III:4 (Dec 1993) Home¦ Issue Contents On Mars and Pestilence Ev Cochrane The recent emergence of archaeoastronomy as a science has produced a wealth of information about the various celestial bodies. To date, however, the collection of information has proceeded at a faster pace than has analysis. This is nowhere more apparent than in comparative analyses of ancient traditions surrounding the planets. One wants to know, for example, what to make of the fact that the ancient Mesoamerican skywatchers-- like their Babylonian counterparts-- represented the planet Venus as a great warrior or as a fire-breathing dragon. (61) Or why the Babylonians together with several other advanced cultures described the planet Saturn as a "Sun." (62) Such puzzles of planetary lore, difficult to understand according to the central tenets of modern astronomy, could be multiplied by the hundreds. From a methodological standpoint, it is possible to investigate archaeoastronomy from several different vantage points. The most obvious, of course, is to collect and analyze the ancients' ...
47. An Answer to Hickman [Catastrophism & Ancient History Journal $]
... 853 B.C.; fall of Israel, 722 B.C.; fall of Jerusalem, 586 B.C., etc. Hickman then goes on to equate September 17, 605 B.C., Nebuchadnezzar's accession date, as his first reigning year. This is based, he says, on the first of two eclipses, but he does not supply us with the source, or even evaluate the data. The calculation for an ancient eclipse is based on a stable solar system, with no changes for some 3000 years. Even without the Babylonian data this method would be hard to accept. But let us follow his argument. 605 B.C. is also the date for the battle of Carchemish. However, according to Nebuchadnezzar's own account, this was not his first year (ANET, 563-64). This was his "accession" year, and it fills in the time from the death of his father to the New Year Festival. His official year and count start on the first day of Nisan. What this means is that in Assyria and Babylon, when ...
48. Bookshelf [SIS C&C Review $]
... From: SIS Review Vol V No 4 (1984) Home¦ Issue Contents Bookshelf BABYLONIAN ASTRONOMY Saving the Appearances ASTRONOMICAL DATING OF BABYLON I AND UR III by Peter J. Huber (with acknowledgement to 6 co-workers), published as "Occasional Papers on the Near East" Vol. I, Issue 4, June 1982 by Undena Publications, P.O. Box 97, Malibu, California 90265, U.S.A. (93pp., price $9.50+ $1.40 postage). MICHAEL READE Michael Reade, DSO, is an experienced marine navigator, a chemistry consultant in industry, and consultant on observational astronomy for the Review, to which he has contributed numerous articles on ancient astronomy. Peter Huber, of Harvard University, is a professional statistician and his paper is a very involved and detailed attempt to run down the "true date", particularly of Ammizaduga (a king of ancient Babylon), by an intensive application of statistical analysis to all the known ancient data, principally the Babylonian records of the appearances and disappearances of Venus, together with a ...
49. Heracles and the Planet Mars [Aeon Journal $]
... sort of relation to Mars, what then would be the astronomical significance of an attack upon the sun-god by the planet Mars? Under the current arrangement of the solar system, of course, circumstances under which the planet Mars would be seen as engaging in an attack upon the sun are difficult to imagine. It is worth noting, however, that the traditions of other cultures bring the planet Mars into some sort of adversarial relationship with the ancient sun-god, a common motive ascribing to Mars a role in disturbances of the sun. Babylonian tradition, for example, referred to Nergal as Lugul-du-su-a, "the king who causes the sun to go down." (17) Ugaritic sources, similarly, credit Reseph with causing "eclipses" of the sun, Reseph being a form of Nergal and identified by leading scholars with the planet Mars. (18) R.W. Willson, a pioneer in the investigation of the Mayan astronomical tables, claimed to have found evidence in the Mesoamerican codices of a Mars-table. It is curious to note, however, that the ...
50. The Venus Tablets: A Fresh Approach? [Kronos $]
... hereafter LFS), who favored -1920 to -1899. Ever since Kugler attributed the Venus tablets to the reign of Ammisaduqa, the aim of investigators has been to find a retrocalculated sequence of disappearances and appearances of Venus that will match the sequence of disappearances and appearances that is reported on the Venus tablets. This use of the Venus tablets as a means of dating the reign of Ammisaduqa is generally seen as the only exact basis for the second millennium chronology of the entire Middle East. For once Ammisaduqa is dated, and the First Babylonian Dynasty with him, the chronology of that entire region of the world is supposedly placed on a firm footing. Even those who favor this approach, however, have often been unable to decide among the long chronology (-1701 to -1680), the short chronology (-1581 to-1560), and the two middle chronologies (-1645 to -1624 and -1637 to -1616). In what follows, we shall argue that Weir's approach to these issues is neither fresh nor right. Not the least of our criticisms of Weir's article is that, in his ...
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