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51. Jonathan Swift and the Moons of Mars [Kronos $]
... their respective periods of revolution. It was the near exactitude of these "calculations" which earned Swift, the satirist, a place (albeit often just a footnote) in astronomical and other scientific texts. Swift's famous paragraph consists of a statement made by the hero of the voyages, Lemuel Gulliver, concerning the knowledge of the astronomers of the imaginary island ... of this collision [sic ." (7) Another writer, R. de Witt Miller, touches upon the Swift-Hall issue by stating: "Where Jonathan Swift got the astronomy he included in his Gulliver's Travels is a problem." (8) Although Miller adds no pet theory of his own, the fact that Swift is included in his book ... that influences the other heavenly bodies." (2) The above few lines nestled quite comfortably among Swift's other words for a century and a half until Asaph Hall, an astronomer at the U. S. Naval Observatory in Washington, D. C., set his sights and his 26-inch refracting telescope upon Mars. The year was 1877 and the ...
52. Additional Notes on Assyro-Babylonian Chronology [Catastrophism & Ancient History Journal $]
... lst year in Babylon was separated from the 12th year of Esarhaddon by one year. How did the scribes account for this "extra year"? For chronological, calendarial, astronomical, and other purposes it was necessary to keep count of every year, including the years when no king was generally recognized. Sometimes such years were simply designated "kingless" ... Nicolò and A. Ungnad. 13 The astronomical texts The greatest weakness in Schlecker's discussion is his complete disregard of the Babylonian astronomical texts. It is only by the aid of astronomy that we can establish an absolute chronology for this ancient period. As Professor Otto Neugebauer puts it: "An 'absolute chronology' [is a chronology which is based on astronomically ... , for their purpose was the same." (Gadd, p 90.) 2. It is often stated that the compiler of "Ptolemy's Canon" was the Alexandrian astronomer Claudius Ptolemy (70-161 AD) and that it was included in his great work Almagest. Neither of these views are correct. As Professor Otto Neugebauer explains, the designation " ...
53. A Hypothetical Ancient Telescope [Horus $]
... it is only one-third of this apparent size. 1 wonder, then, if some kind of crude telescope were used to see Venus in the crescent phase. There are other astronomical observations of the ancient world which seem to require telescopes, and undoubtedly more will surface. In Ptolemy's Quadripartite, an astrological text, we find references to the Praesepe cluster which ... illuminated disk of that world. A crescent Venus would have been still more visible because of its larger angular size. Basically, these experiments show that the ancients could have done astronomy with such devices as their technology had already created, but can not prove that they did. We need additional evidence to suggest that they did use such telescopes. We turn ... magnified by water! The craters Tycho, Copernicus, Plato and the Alps were easily visible. I repeated these observations November 4, 1984. It is apparent that any ancient astronomer viewing the moon under such circumstances would not fail to recognize that the Moon has a landscape. I next aimed the hypothetical ancient telescope at Jupiter. After the most careful adjustment ...
54. Chapter VI: the Probable Hor-shesu Worship [Dawn of Astronomy (Book)] [Books]
... observed as well as the sun. With regard to all the temples of the ancient world, whether they are located in Egypt or elsewhere, we must never forget that if astronomy is concerned in them at all, we have to deal with the observations of the rising or setting of the heavenly bodies; whereas the modern astronomer cares little for these risings ... settings, but deals only with them on the meridian. The place of rising or setting would be connected with the temple by the direction of the temple's axis. Now, the directions towards which the temples point are astronomically expressed by their "amplitudes"-- that is, the distance in degrees from the east or west point of the horizon. ... or equinoxes had been thoroughly grasped. There is no doubt that if we are justified in assuming that the stars were first observed, the next thing that would strike the early astronomers would be the regularity of the annual movement of the sun; the critical times of the sun's movements as related either to their agriculture, or their festivals, or to the ...
55. Stars, Galaxies and Electro-Gravitic Theory [Aeon Journal $]
... into space. One of the major problems in astronomy is to account for the presence of a galactic magnetic field. One author states, One of the most baffling of all astronomical phenomena is the magnetic field known to exist in our galaxy, and suspected in other galaxies. In order to generate coherent fields of this magnitude by any reasonably conventional means, ... But there's an unusual pulsar that spins extremely slowly J P 1953+ 29. According to Victor N. Mansfield and John M. Ranklin of Cornell University, writing in NATIONAL ASTRONOMY, an Ionosphere Center publication 64, this pulsar is spinning down so slowly that when the effects of its motion across the sky on its apparent (to us) spin rate ... to a discussion of magnetic stars. Immanuel Velikovsky claimed that two magnetic stars orbiting at close quarters would not only be influenced by gravitational interaction but also by magnetic interaction. Radio astronomer James Warwick calculated the influence of two magnetic stars, each of 10,000 gauss separated by three solar radii, and aligned with their dipole moments directed towards each other to ...
56. Maya Cosmos: A Saturnian Interpretation [Aeon Journal $]
... another concentric double ring to the right, on top of a vertical bean pod or something similar On the north mural wall in one of the Bonampak temples are a number of astronomical cartouches, two of which are reproduced above as Figures 3 and 4. The authors of Maya Cosmos have labeled Figure 3 as Mars, and Figure 4 as Saturn. [ ... in various ways to eclipse occurrences, nodal points of Venus relative to the celestial equator, and to Mars-Saturn conjunctions. The ideology underlying this extensive tradition was apparently derived from the astronomy apparent in the sky from the time of zero base-day (day of Creation) of the Long Count notation...to the traditional date on which the planetary spirits (identified in ... there are noexceptions to this rule anywhere in the Maya area during the Classic Period." [8 If true, and I say this because I am not qualified as an astronomer or mathematician, this is rather astounding. Am I saying that the Saturnian configuration existed, appeared, or dispersed on August 13, 3114 B.C. (or any of their ...
57. The Saturn Thesis (Part 3) [Aeon Journal $]
... Epoch. (Illustration by David Talbott) AEON: Could you, once again, explain the images in question? Talbott: The theory identifies the components by reference to early astronomical traditions. The primeval sun (Unity, formless god) is Saturn, hanging huge and motionless in the sky. The central orb (or ovoid form on the bottom illustration ... planetary history, based on a universal memory. In an epoch remembered as the Age of the Gods, the Earth participated dynamically in an unusual planetary system never imagined by modern astronomy. The first layers of the historical argument for the Saturn theory rest on certain principles everyone can agree on. We know that ancient sky gazers incessantly drew pictures of cosmic powers ... this starting point, the model predicts highly specific and concrete relationships of the planets Saturn, Venus and Mars to the ancient divinities with which the planets were associated in the first astronomies. It predicts highly specific and concrete attributes of the respective divinities; and it predicts highly specific and concrete relationships of each power to the others. Even more significantly, it ...
... stars. Perhaps no other nation in history can trace so long a preoccupation with the heavens and their turning, or boast so many huge monuments and temples with known or conjectured astronomical alignment. Yet with all the demonstrated capacity for precise measurement and engineering and the evident sophistication in Egyptian mathematics and geometry, modem interpreters have difficulty in making astronomical sense of it ... . Though the statue is a copy and a glass window has been placed in one side-wall, the tiny cell still conveys directly and with some elegance the central role of observational astronomy in Egyptian religion and culture almost five-thousand years ago. As the divine authority on Earth, the pharaoh had a primary responsibility for the cosmic order. At the same time, ... objective, the "North of Heaven" [celestial pole. Once the soul left the pyramid it was never heard from again [no doubt to the good fortune of the astronomers and engineers who built it having been mislaunched towards its celestial mark by several degrees. Nor do things seem to have improved over a millennium later. Though now the task was ...
59. Father Kugler's Falling Star [Kronos $]
... Assyrian mythology on the language, culture and religion of the East"(3) observed that most mythologies prove to be astrally inspired, and can be interpreted as presenting detailed astronomical information. As this framework is substantially the same throughout the world, it must have been transferred by diffusion from a central point; Mesopotamia being known for the antiquity of its ... archaeoastronomer, which deals with the Phaethon legend and the "Battle of the Stars"in the books of the Sibylline Oracles. Kugler is rare among trained specialists in history and astronomy in giving some credence to the possibility of large-scale natural catastrophes, but nevertheless finds himself constrained by the orthodox beliefs he has inherited. In the paper under consideration, this results ... myth and the difficulties in battling against ingrained uniformitarian ideas. A Pioneer of Archaeoastronomy Born on 27th November 1862 in Königsbach, and described in encyclopedias(1) as an "astronomer and Assyriologist", Franz Xaver Kugler had fair claim to be considered a polymath. He studied physical sciences in Heidelberg and Munich, and graduated in chemistry. After joining the ...
60. Velikovsky, Mars, and the Eighth Century B.C. Part Two [Kronos $]
... been common knowledge at the time. In fact, his calculation, like that of Yu K'uo before him, was, no less than modern western ones, based on recurring astronomical cycles. Velikovsky believed that the last of a series of planetary near-collisions had taken place in 687 B.C., when the Earth, Mars, and the Moon assumed their present ... the Moon's orbit (where it crosses the ecliptic) as well as its perihelion (where it moves fastest) precess quite rapidly, at different periods. The perplexity of Chinese astronomy in dealing with these inequalities is expressed in the traditional statement that "the Moon has nine roads". There was a tendency to retreat from the complexities of a mathematical, ... in Harper's magazine in 1951 (reprinted in Pensée IVR V, p. 21), Velikovsky wrote that "the calculation 776 B.C. is made on the authority of the astronomer Y-hang who lived a generation later". (6) However, I Hsing actually lived in the eighth century A.D., not B.C.*-- a millennium and ...
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