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Scientific Prehistory

A Sequel of

Prehistory and Earth Models

Melvin A. Cook

Chairman, Cook Associates, Inc.


Page Number


Foreword i -- v

Publication of PEM; Cover page of PEM;

Preface to Scientific Prehistory Reviews by T. Barnes, J. Read, Rev. W. Lang mentioned.

Chapter I Reviews of PEM 1 -- 9

A. Beal review; R.L. Numbers comments on Author, "Man, His Origin and Destiny"

Chapter II Radiocarbon and Tree-Ring Dating 10 - 22

ER vs. NER, Developments since PEM; Tree-ring dating; "Calibrated" vs., Ordinary C-14 dating;

Ages of Pharaohs; Zoser's Great Architect, Imhotep (Joseph?); ER Dating before the Flood and NER Dating after The Flood.

Chapter III Geological Chronometry 23 -- 46

Dating by U-Th-Pb; Rb-Sr and K-Ar methods wrong; Zone melting;

Natural non-radiogenic and non-radioactive abundance variations; Neutron-promoted lead transformations (NPLT), the X` reaction; Physics of X` reactions;Fission chain asking of U-ThPb, Rb-Sr and K-Ar dating; Non-radiologicasl dating by salt, sedimentation, helium, radiation damage; Astronomical dating by periods of rotation, red shifts, "Big Bang".

Chapter IV Dating by Galactic Cosmic Rays and the Photosphere. 46 -- 52

Purely observational dating with none of the guesswork of geological dating; age of the solar system, whole earth age; age of earth's surface. moon rock; Simpson and Garcia-Munoz dating of "containment time" confirmed.

Chapter V Thermodynamic Equilibrium, in Galactic Cosmic Rays, and Age 53-104

Theory and equations of NTE; parameters of NTE equations; tables of computed results including age determinations; questions on calculated vs. observed relative abundances by what nuclides are observed. Comet Howard-Keemen Michels and Bearded Comet Arnedt Roland; Comparisons with Detonation Generated Plasma and implication on universal gravitation, solar wind, a trampoline effect of GCR; the Heliosphere; cosmic jets and NTE-generation of nuclides; Novae and Supernovae; Bang and Crunch vs. "big bang" and "big crunch".

Chapter VI Mantle Convection Currents 105 -- 115

Orowan article goes against MCC and my "Letter to the Editor", Scientific America. Articles with leading geologist, Dr. Armend J. Eardley; Opposition to Eardley collaboration among local geologists; Viscosity disproves MCC; Reviews of Ice Cap Model and the "Geologic Time Mental Block;Ocean-floor fossils high up Cordillera; Age of Greenland ice cap.

Chapter VII Rock Mechanics and Earth Tectonics 116 -- 163

National Geographic Society 16" Globe Relief Map and Hard Rock Blasting Provide Answers. Pangaea and Continental Drift in Historical Geology; Carey's "rheid" concept false; Carey terminology and modifications; Mapping Pangea; Types of brittle facture (Fig 7-8 for definitions of ITB, OITB, BTB, CTB, SB, CSB, F, FB, SZ, Sh); Distortions: plastic wave ridges,pwr; unstable shock wave (or shear) ridges, uswr; shock wave ridges, fracture and melting (swr, swf and swm); spall, crumpling or "welts", "mega-shear (not really shear); Photos of examples. Two OITB's in rupture of Pangaea; Opening of Atlantic Basin; Mechanism of Continental Shifts, CS; 'spicules' as proof of spall ; boundaries of Pangaea; EarthGirdling Rift and Ridges, EGRR. Photos of examples,

CONTENTS Page Number

Chapter VIII Floatation in Continental Shifts 165 -- 184

Experiences with deep water, oil and gas wells; Fluid pressures in deep wells (normal hydrostatic, subnormal, abnormally high and geostatic); Sudden deep burial as source of abnormal, subnormal , abnormally high and geostatic pressures Hubbert and Rubey mechanism of high and low pressures and pressure gradients in deep wells; Birch criticisms and modifications leading to mechanism of continental flotation. Stacking of sediments; shortening of earth's crust; Rheology of earth's crust; Batholiths; up-lift sand major discontinuity-bounded sequences; blast model of some western USA uplifts; Continental Flotation.

Chapter IX Coal Chemistry and composition of different coals. 185-195

Occurrence and orientation of coal beds; Coal beds from overthrusts. Overthust model of coal; Cyclothems.

Chapter X Oil and Gas 198-211

Chemistry and mechanism of formation; C-14 dating of petroleum; Geographicv and Geologic occurrence of oil and gas. Trap-reservoir relations and time of formation of oil sah domes, chalk, carbonates and reefs; Unconformity and fault traps; Conclusions;

Chapter XI Palaeomagnetism 212-220

"Natural" and "Thermal" Remnant Magnetization,NRM and TRM. They 'melt' at "Curie temperature"; NRM as a chronometer; Palaeo-magnetism and continental shift.

Chapter XII Evolution vs. Creation. 221-235

Theory of Evolution described by protagonists (they are bitter toward creation); Wald's dilemma of no mechanism for organic evolution; Weisskopf's non-science to overcome evolution violates the second law of thermodynamics, entropy. They get around entropy only by coining new word, "neg-entropy', not by any semblance of science. Macro-evolution (by man's creations, does not establish the dogma of speciation; there is no speciation. Facts of Biblical time, fossils, sedimentation destroy "historicast speciation; Natural Selection a myth; theistic evolution an irrational compromise; Theistic evolution at BYU; My poll of LDS Church Presidents:9 to 1 against organic evolution with 2 providing no way to tell.

Chapter XIII Anomaly vs. Reality Polystrate fossils; 236-252

Polystrate fossils, unfossilized trees in pre-Cambrian taconite mine; The Bill Meister discovery of footprints in "trilobite beds near Delta, Utah; "Cold fusion" Attempted\ hoax; Earthquakes from pumping of GSL; "The Einstein Myth and the Eyves Papers" by Turner and Hazlett

Chapter XIV Moon Tectonics 253-269

Chemistry of Moon rock from "Tranquility Base"; Lunar rock dating by U-Th-Pb; Rb-Sr and K-Ar, and non-radio-genic methods; What is happening on moon surface; Reviews of my "Letter to the Editor"; Rare gas adsorption on moon rock; Shock wave melting from meteor impact in moon craters; Moon tectonics from large meteor impact-explosions; Photograph of ITB by Lunar OrbiterV; swm, Ro, volcanic cones, CTB's on moon surface; Crater Orientate from Giant meteor impact with swm, uswr,wefts, and brittle fracture rays; Crater Tycho; Altai Scarp, a "giant 'bathtub; Moon far-side.

References 270-275

Summary and Introduction to Appendices 276-277

Appendices 278-332

I. Anomalous Chronometry; II. Isostacy and Metastacy; III. Particle-Light Theury; IV. Classical Model of Chemical Bond; V. Many Electron Atoms; VI. Bond Energy in Diatomic Molecules; VII. Unification; VIII Universal Gravitation

Shear-Spike Field on Mount Everest 333

Resume of Author

Scientific Prehistory iii

Publication of PEM

Prehistory and Earth Models (PEM) was published more to answer scientific critics than any notion it might sell well. Twenty five hundred copies were printed by Max Parrish Co. Rd., London. About half were donated to libraries and non-profit organizations, the remaining sold slowly. PEM was out of print by 1973 when Science and Mormonism (S&M) coauthored with (son) M. Garfield Cook began a third edition. S&M included some aspects of PEM, but also emphasized scientific contributions of the authors' LDS background. The difference in popularity of PEM and S&M, had to do with style and the readers to which they were directed. Even those who liked PEM complained that it was difficult to read.

The manuscript of PEM was finished by August, 1964 and Plenum Press had agreed to publish it. In passing through New York on a trip to South Africa to introduce my new "slurry blasting agent" into the Rio Tinto Zinc mine at Palabora, the manuscript was hand-carried to Plenum's Editor O'Conners. With obvious chagrin and apologies, he reported that Plenum Press had decided they could not afford to publish PEM because "six men you would know" had just sent him a letter threatening reprisals if they published PEM. The identity of the six attempting to block publication of PEM was learned five years later when one of them filed a lawsuit against the authors of Science & Mormonism for an alleged violation of the copyrighted geologic section from Bryce to Grand Canyons. (See below) Plaintiff dropped the case when he learned defendants knew it was Plaintiff who had been violating the copyright. We obtained permission from the rightful copyright owner and the second and third editions of S&M carried the proper acknowledgement. (See below) The manuscript was thus carried on to the Palabora mine where Andrew Buxton, present from London for Rio Tinto Zinc to observe the introduction of the new "slurry" blasting system, liked PEM, and wrote Oliver Colman, editor of Max Parrish Co., Ltd., London, to arrange a meeting to discuss publication. About a week later, following a pleasant luncheon at the London Hilton, the manuscript of PEM was accepted for publication by Max Parrish & Co., Ltd.

Cover Page of PEM by Editor

"If the earth is billions of years old, Prehistory and Earth Models argues that all but the last few thousand years of scientifically readable Prehistory has been erased perhaps by world-shaping catastrophes. The observed unbalance of radiocarbon, the abundance and influx of uranium in the oceans and helium in the atmosphere, the instability of palaeo-magnetism in the rocks, and reinterpreted systematic discrepancies in the radioactive `time clocks" are among the substantiating arguments.

"`Continental Drift' is described as a recent catastrophic rupture of 'Pangaea' and sudden shift of the continents under the tremendous forces of polar ice caps. Crustal uplifts and depressions, shield geosyncline-welt interrelationships, the nature and occurrence of coal, oil and fossils, over-thrusting and stacking of strata, for instance, in the Canadian Rockies, and other geologic information substantiate this novel reconstruction of Prehistory. Biological Prehistory is discussed from time implication and a central argument that spontaneous generation and organic evolution go counter to `time's arrow'. Differentiation, adaptation, mutations vs. speciation and anomalous fossilization are among the topics considered. Since "Life feeds on negative entropy" (Erwin Schroedinger) it is an amazing, unnatural, intricately engineered phenomenon".


There would seem to be no better way to highlight the contents of PEM than to quote the excellent and extensive 1988 review by Alasdair Beal, now Editor of C&C Workshop of SIS, Great Britain. There were three other, also favorable reviews by Creationists including those of Dr. Thomas Barnes, Professor of Physics, University of Texas at El Paso, Dr. John Read, Publisher, Northridge, California, and Reverend Walter Lang, Editor, Bible Science, Caldwell, Idaho.

Attention is called also to the 1992 book, The Creationists, by Dr. Ronald L. Numbers, Professor of the History and Science of Medicine at the University of Wisconsin.

The Beal review of PEM is given in Chapter I along with comments from Dr. Numbers on how the author was "catapulted" into the long-standing evolution vs. creation debates.

Scientific Prehistory iv
Scientific Prehistory

The Church of Jesus Christ of Latter-day Saints, of which the author is a member, teaches that the creation was a re-fashioning and reforming, understood to involve only the creation (or remodeling) of the surface features of the earth, not the earth as a Scientific Prehistory whole. This is the sense in which creation was treated in PEM and also in this book. As stated in early 1956 correspondence with Dr. Willard F. Libby, quoted in my Autobiography, Volume 11, 1977, regarding radio-carbon dating, and in the preface of PEM, nothing written in those publications about the age of the earth's crust, the atmosphere and hydrosphere had anything to do with the age of the globular earth. The age of the earth is treated here for the first time.

Chapter II is an updated treatment of radiocarbon dating with a calibration based on gravity anomaly dating. It verifies the non-equilibrium radiocarbon, NER, dating method and shows that the conventional equilibrium radiocarbon dating method of Libby is incorrect. Also it brings scientific dating into agreement with Bible dating of the Flood, and the separation of the continents "in the days of Peleg", or Continental Shift. (It occurred too rapidly for "drift" to be a proper description.)

Chapter III deals with the still conventional long-period `time clocks' with an emphasis on neutron-promoted lead, potassium and oxygen transformations, respectively. Only neutron-promoted lead transformations were treated in PEM, but developments since PEM lend fundamental and important meaning to what is happening in the earth as a result of spontaneous fission and a-recoil reactions designated X* for brevity. There is really no need for further arguments regarding the validity of the conventional U-Th-Pb; Rb-Sr and K-Ar `time clocks'. Intellectual honesty would lead to abandonment of these fallacious time clocks. Since they have not yet been abandoned some of the more important reasons for abandonment are presented also in Chapter III.

Studies to extend knowledge of explosives to novae and supernovae, led to two major discoveries since publication of PEM:

(1)     A simple wholly observational dating method to replace the above Scientific Prehistory fictitious ones. (The age of the earth turns out to be about half that claimed by geophysicists, but the solar system is found to be about the same as claimed by earth scientists. This galactic cosmic ray and photo-sphere method still shows that the surface features of the earth are in the thousands, not billions, of years of age as determined in the early work leading to PEM.)

(2) Nuclides of the solar system were formed (and are forming today) in galactic cosmic rays, GCR, in a state of nuclear thermodynamic equilibrium, NTE, starting at a thermal energy of 0.9 million electron volts, MeV)

The simple novel dating method is treated in Chapter IV and NTE is the subject of Chapter V which adds to Chapter IV by providing a wholly theoretical chronometry. Supernova 1987A and its answer to the "neutrino problem" were the motivations leading also to the discovery that the true composition of common lead is that in GCR with all necessary data given by Lange, Handbook of Chemistry and Physics and in direct measurements of nuclide abundances in the earth and moon. This made possible the determination of the age of the earth and the solar system based entirely on observed data with none of the guesses characterizing the `geologic time clocks.' Scientific Prehistory also includes results of recent studies in applying rock mechanics to interpret modern relief maps of the earth's surface. Today the excellent National Geographic Society relief map is available for the story I wish to tell; good relief maps were not available when PEM was written.

Chapters Vill to XI are updated from PEM.

Chapter XIV summarizes unconventional ideas on gravity and the nature of the universe each drawing heavily on the authors LDS Church background.

Partial blindness made difficult the preparation of this book. Hopefully readers will overlook errors not found. Caustic remarks dispersed at places would ordinarily be avoided. Really one should never strike back in kind. However, it is difficult to avoid this in answering earth-science antagonists portrayed in reviews, opposition letters and public displays. Hopefully the (difficult to avoid) darts herein will serve to reveal the general attitude unfortunately too prominent in the earth sciences. This book might have been a fourth volume of autobiography except that it contains many facts ignored by earth scientists needed to tell the "history of the earth written in the rocks".