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Search results for: santorini in all categories
76 results found.
8 pages of results.
31. A Slice Through Time (dendrochronology and precision dating) by M. G. L. Baillie [SIS C&C Review $]
... eruptions and abnormally narrow growth rings in trees is detailed in Chapter 5. The story is well known to SIS members, beginning with Valmore LaMarche's bristlecone pine 'frost signature' for 1627 BC, a date replicated in the Irish oaks for 1628-26 BC and later in German and English oaks also. The Dye 3 Greenland ice core of Hammer et al. [8 shows an acid maximum at 1645 +/- 20 BC, which is in fair agreement with this date, and there is the suggestion that the eruption of Thera/Santorini marks the causative event, based on the very many published 14C dates for materials from Thera. Baillie does less well in trying to establish links between other volcanic eruptions and the acid maxima in ice cores or narrow rings in tree chronologies. Indeed, on pp. 78-79 he is able to refute the claims of Hammer et al. that the 3190s BC 'event' was caused by Hekla 4 and the 4400s BC 'event' was caused by Mazama because a re-examination of the 14C evidence shows that neither date is tenable. He ...
32. Four Faces of Collective Psychology [Horus $]
... profile, were some of the results of that catastrophe." Thesis 14: "The exodus took place at the close of the Middle Kingdom: the natural catastrophe caused the end of this period in the history of Egypt. This was in the middle of the second millennium before the present era."(2) Thus, Velikovsky suggested real disasters not symbolic ones, and disasters which antedated the period of time biblical scholars had given to the Exodus by several centuries. Velikovsky dated the catastrophe as occurring about 1500 B.C. Santorini ash [photo courtesy of Professor Daniel J. Stanley, Smithsonian Institution, Washington D.C. Forty years later, Science News has reported that two scientists from the Smithsonian Institution's National Museum of Natural History discovered ash grains taken from the Nile Delta. According to the authors, the grains came from a tremendous eruption of the Santorini volcano on Crete, an eruption which allegedly destroyed the Minoan civilization and was as forceful as Krakatoa. The authors argue that the soot and ash thrown into the atmosphere was extensive, covered most of the ...
33. Pot Pourri [SIS C&C Review $]
... were used as evidence that this was a global event. We were also informed that there is a 200-year cold period every 1500 years and that the 2200BC event was the beginning of a 4,200 year period of climatic downturn (implying that today's global warming is cyclical). In Egypt, it was followed by '100 years of turmoil'. In the second documentary (Mystery of the Minoans, BBC2, 2/8/01), the end of Minoan civilisation was again linked to the eruption (c.1600BC) of Santorini on Thera. The volcanic plume which deposited a pumice layer 10m thick was calculated to be 36km high. Evidence was presented for a pre-existing shallow sea in the centre of Thera, suggesting much of the ash may have fallen into this and been concealed. Adding that to the calculations allows a doubling of the explosive power and SO 2 emission, to create a climatic catastrophe of Tambora-like proportions. Thera, housing much of the Minoans' market network, would be vaporised. The discovery of deep-water shells in a salt marsh on ...
... the rarity in most reports of observations on beds of destruction... some reporters have regarded these beds as a nuisance or of little interest."(1) The recent excavation of settlements of Minoan times, buried beneath or affected by the tephra of the exploded volcano of ancient TheraSantorini, did possess the broader perspective that Schaeffer sought. Marinatos and others introduced research on the far-flung effects of the disaster. Heezen and Ninkovich discovered a layer of ash on the southeastern floor of the Mediterranean Sea that they could ascribe to the Santorini explosion. Charles and Dorothy Vitaliano followed up with analyses of tephra from scattered locations in Crete and elsewhere.(2) The search and testing are continuing. Still, the Thera case is exceptional, and even yet far from complete. The ash coverings of settlements have rarely been analyzed. We speak of overall calcination, and not so much of the bones of hearths that have lent evidence of the ecology, cuisine, and religious ceremonies of early human groups. Overall calcination has sometimes, with less than complete evidence, ...
35. The Nature and Scale of an Exodus Catastrophe Reassessed [SIS C&C Review $]
... but the effect was the same as that reported for the Nile: the fish died, the water became undrinkable. He also considered the penultimate plague, three days of 'thick darkness', to have been volcanic in origin. Rejecting the usual sandstorm explanation (again, too commonplace an event), he drew parallels instead with the pall of darkness which is often a feature of major volcanic eruptions. While Phythian-Adams looked to Africa for the volcanic activity responsible for these effects, more recently they have been linked with the eruption of Santorini/Thera (Bennett 1963: 127-56; Goedicke 1987; Wilson 1985: 115-127). Cores from the Nile Delta have confirmed that tephra from Thera reached as far as Egypt (Stanley and Sheng 1986), but whether it reached there in sufficient quantity to obscure the Sun has been doubted (Slade 1990: 5-6). This is a subject for future research. Of course, the relevance or otherwise of the Thera eruption to the Exodus phenomena is also dependent on the relative dating of the two events, an issue ...
36. Monitor [SIS C&C Review $]
... years usually assigned to it. Occasionally, however, radiocarbon dating, by showing an object to be much younger than thought, proves it to be a fake. A rare example of Stone Age engraving on bone, discovered in Britain less than a year after the infamous Piltdown skull and presented to the Natural History Museum by the same man, has been shown to be only 600 years old, with even more recent carving on it. Its similarity to Britain's only other sample of cave art has cast doubt upon that too. Santorini, Joseph's volcano Sunday Times 17.3.96, p. 24 Two scientists have joined the chronology debate by suggesting that the dust cloud thrown out by the eruption of Santorini in 1628 BC caused the seven year famine in Egypt, foretold by Joseph. This then places the Exodus at 1280 BC, in the reign of Ramesses the Great. David Rohl dismisses the idea as another example of science versus archaeology giving rise to irreconcilable chronologies. ARCHAEOLOGY Far eastern Celts? The New York Times 7.5.96, National Geographic March 96, pp. 44-51 ...
37. Monitor [SIS C&C Review $]
... Crustal slips Science Frontiers No. 112, Sep-Oct 97, p. 2-3, New Scientist 2.8.97, p. 15 The establishment is now suggesting that Earth may have suffered a crustal slip, a possibility that catastrophists have long entertained. We needn't get too excited though, as the slip postulated was around half a billion years ago and although a 90 degree slip is allowed, carrying the poles to the equator, the 'rapid' speed of slip actually took 15 Myrs! It was caused by changes in distribution of mass. Catastrophe Santorini- the last word? New Scientist 21.6.97, pp. 36-39, 2.8.97, p. 49 An attempt to revive the old story of the demise of the Minoans as being caused by a massive tsunami after the eruption of Santorini was quashed by a reader who pointed out that by the third congress on the subject, not only had the eruption been dated to several decades earlier than the destruction of Minoan Crete but the eruption had been shown to be smaller than previously thought. It did not create the present crater but merely ...
38. Recent Developments in Near Eastern Archaeology [SIS C&C Review $]
... signatures read much the same, varying only in the amount of sulphur. Now a better technique is coming into use, although difficult and time consuming, which is to locate micron-sized tephra particles emitted by volcanoes, which also end up frozen in the Arctic ice. These particles can be analysed for their chemical content, which may well identify the volcano from which they came. The method has now been applied in the GISP2 (Greenland Ice Sheet Project 2) ice-core in the 1620s BC, the supposed time of the Thera/Santorini eruption (Zielinski and Germani, 'New Ice-Core Evidence Challenges the 1620s BC Age for the Santorini (Minoan) Eruption', Journal of Archaeological Science 25 (1998) pp. 279-289). Tephra particles were found but they do not match Thera. The authors conclude that Thera is unlikely to have erupted in the 1620s. Unfortunately it was not possible to say where the tephra had come from- perhaps Zielinski and colleagues were looking in the wrong 'ball-park'. For the time being at least, this kills off the so-called ...
39. Review: A Bronze Age Disaster. Exodus to Arthur: Catastrophic encounters with comets, by M.G.L. Baillie [SIS C&C Review $]
... all the radiocarbon dates from Thera are not worth the paper they are printed on. Baillie, though reluctant to subject scientific dating methods to the critical approach which is required, is happy instead to cite no less an authority than the dates of Ussher (yes, the 17th-century Archbishop!), taken from the margins of an old Bible: 'Interestingly Usher [sic, who attempted to put a timescale on the happenings in the Old Testament, suggested a date of 1491BC for the Exodus, which is only 137 years out if Santorini did erupt in 1628 BC, and less if the more conservative sixteenth-century date for the eruption was to prove correct' (p. 98). Only 137 years? What can one say? After 1628BC, Baillie does not exactly turn to his next 'event' in 1159BC. The book jumps about from century to century, throwing in different kinds of evidence, but the scattered sections on this are similarly weak. The volcano of Hekla in Iceland blew around 1159BC and Baillie blames this, and an associated cometary event, ...
40. Monitor [SIS C&C Workshop $]
... twice the diameter of Charon (4000 km to 2000 km) and Charon orbits at about 19,000 km from Pluto. The figures for the mass of Pluto have had to be altered in the light of this new discovery. The total mass of the Pluto/Charon system is about 1/400th that of Earth. Since the radius of Charon is fully one-half that of Pluto "... it's now appropriate to think of Pluto and Charon as a double planet, rather than as a planet plus satellite". SANTORINI VOLCANO THEORY- NEW SCIENTIST, 2/10/80, p.23 P. McIlmoyle kindly sent in this cutting, which describes the "final death blow for the already tenuous theory that the eruption of the Thera (Santorini) volcano caused the sudden collapse of the Great Minoan (i.e. Middle) civilisation in the eastern Mediterranean some 3500 years ago". The work of C. Doumas and L. Papazoglou (reported in NATURE 287, p.322: also see NATURE 30/10/80, p.779) is cited ...
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