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73 pages of results.
61. Chapter III: The Historical Construction [The Age of Velikovsky] [The Age of Velikovsky] [Books]
... and other art forms are made between differing locations in order to provide a time scale relative to another country. In the case of much of antiquity, the absolute dating of a culture is obtained by linking it to Egyptian history. The real key to absolute time, then, is the association of a given culture with Egyptian chronology.This leaves the impression that Egyptian chronology is either exceedingly well-known or had an exceptionally proficient press agent Unfortunately, as we shall see, the latter seems to be the case. THE TIME SCALE The ancient Egyptians did not use an absolute time scale the way we do today. They did not select a year and then relate the events of various dynasties to this date instead they referenced events to the beginning of the rule of a particular ruler. In creating an absolute chronology for Egypt, this practice caused ambiguity in at least two ways. First in the case of a co-regency between father and son, it is not always clear if the time of reign of each includes the overlap. If a king is said to have ruled ...
62. Towards an astronomical dating of the pyramids [SIS C&C Review $]
... (May 1997) Home¦ Issue Contents Towards an astronomical dating of the pyramids by Michael G. Reade Michael G. Reade DSC has contributed several 'astronomical' articles to SIS publications. His astronomical expertise derives from wartime experience as a Navigating Officer in the Royal Navy (1940-44). Since then, his principal activities have been in food technology and woodland management. Summary A detailed study of the claim that the pyramids of Giza were planned to mirror the constellation of Orion on the ground supports this hypothesis but reveals that the ancient Egyptians cannot have been quite such precise surveyors as is frequently claimed and that the era when the plan was conceived was probably around 800 BC. The book The Orion Mystery by R. Bauval and A. Gilbert, first published 1994 [1, presents a very plausible hypothesis as to how the pyramids of Giza and their environs were conceived by the ancient Egyptians as a scale plan of the constellation of Orion (equated, in Egyptian eyes, with Osiris), from which many potentially interesting consequences arise, at least some of ...
63. The 1552 Exodus [Catastrophism & Ancient History Journal $]
... Hyksos Salatis, who took control of the Egyptian delta about 1663. The sons of Israel were "more and mightier" (Exodus 1:9) than the Hyksos, but it was a Hyksos pharaoh who oppressed the Israelites as slaves. It was a Hyksos princess who adopted Moses. The Egyptian pharaoh Ahmose drove the Hyksos from the delta, and the sons of Israel got a new taskmaster. When Moses returned to Egypt the Hyksos who sought his life were all dead (Exodus 4:19), crushed by the Egyptians. Now it was God's turn to crush the Egyptians. The pharaoh of the Exodus was Ahmose, who became king in 1570, according to the generally accepted high chronology (Edwards, Gadd, and Hammond 1970:187, 819; Wente 1975; Casperson 1986). Ahmose was a child when he came to the throne and operated under the regency of his mother, Queen Ahotep (Harris and Wente 1980). He established the eighteenth dynasty by expelling the foreign Hyksos rulers. The war against the Hyksos was rekindled ...
64. Chapter XXIII: The Egyptian Year and the Nile [Dawn of Astronomy (Book)] [Books]
... Chapter XXIII The Egyptian Year and the Nile OUR researches so far leave no doubt upon the question that a large part of the astronomical activity of the earliest Egyptians had. reference to observations connected especially with New Year's Bay. It has been made abundantly clear, too, that in very early times the Egyptians had a solar year commencing at the Summer Solstice, and that this solstice was then, and is now, coincident with the arrival of the Nile flood at Heliopolis and Memphis, the most important centres of northern Egyptian life during the early dynasties. In the dawn of civilisation it was not at all a matter of course that the sun should be taken as the measurer of time, as it is now with us, and in this connection it is worth while to note how very diverse the treatment of this subject was among the early peoples. Thus, for instance, it was different in Egypt from what it was in Chaldaea and Babylonia, and later among the Jews. In the Egyptian inscriptions we find references to the moon, but ...
65. The Road to Iron: 8th and 7th Century Metallurgy and the Decline of Egyptian Power [Catastrophism & Ancient History Journal $]
... , in front of the walls of Jerusalem. Thus may we understand Rabshakeh's taunt in Isaiah 36:6: "Lo, thou trustest in the staff of this broken reed, on Egypt; whereon if a man lean, it will go into his hand, and pierce it: so is Pharaoh king of Egypt to all that trust in him." First, the ineffectual priestly 21st dynasty from probably the 680's presided over an Egypt torn apart by civil war. 21 Isaiah had predicted: "And I will set the Egyptians against the Egyptians: and they shall fight every one against his brother, and every one against his neighbour; city against city, and kingdom against kingdom." (Isaiah 19:2.) Now the priest Wenamon, visiting the Phoenician port of Byblos, could lament 22 the miserable state to which Egyptian prestige-- so high such a short time before when Ramses III repulsed the Philistine sea peoples in the time of Hezekiah 23-- had fallen. It was a period of anarchy when descendants of the workmen ...
66. A Harbinger of the Exodus? [SIS C&C Review $]
... ... in Egypt (to) see whether they are yet alive' [Ex.4:18. By then, 'all the men are dead which sought thy life'. Meets and briefs Aaron at Horeb. Returns with him to Egypt, his mission and 'signs' (rod-serpent, leprous/clean hand) disclosed to Israel's elders by Aaron: 'and the people believed' [Ex. 4:31. Moses and Aaron confront Pharaoh. Plagues fall on Egypt, followed by Exodus of Israelites... 25? Egyptians fear Moses could 'raise a sedition and bring innovations into Egypt'; and tell king he should be slain. The king, similarly minded and urged by the sacred scribes, is ready to have Moses killed. Learning of the plots against him, Moses flees through the desert to Midian. Josephus' writings suggest that he knew Egypt's history from an almost exclusively Jewish standpoint; so he may not have known that Piankhy's invasion, 800 years before his own time, came long after Moses. Even had he suspected this was ...
67. Egyptian Language Anomalies [SIS C&C Workshop $]
... [6 Yet a leading Egyptologist, after explaining that Egyptian literature is normally classified by literary genre and the 'phase of the language' in which it is written, says: 'Three main phases are distinguishable to which grammarians have given the following names: Old Egyptian (First-Eighth Dynasties, c. 3100-2160 BC), Middle Egyptian (Ninth- Mid-Eighteenth Dynasties, c. 2160-1380 BC) and Late Egyptian (Mid-Eighteenth- Twenty-fourth Dynasties, c. 1380-715 BC). It was the second of these phases, Middle Egyptian, which the Egyptians themselves regarded as the classical phase, the writings of which served as models in schools in later times; it was also Middle Egyptian which the scribes of the Twenty-fifth and Twenty-sixth Dynasties (c. 747-525 BC) adopted in their literary compositions. Late Egyptian became common in documents of the Amarna Period, apparently owing to a deliberate attempt by Akhenaten to break away from the traditional literary style in order to bring the written language into line with the vernacular. Unlike his artistic innovations it survived the collapse of his revolution and continued ...
68. The Identification of the Biblical "Queen of Sheba" with Hatshepsut, "Queen of Egypt and Ethiopia" (Part III) [Kronos $]
... : Kronos Vol. I No. 4 (Winter 1976) Home¦ Issue Contents The Identification of the Biblical "Queen of Sheba" with Hatshepsut, "Queen of Egypt and Ethiopia" (Part III)- as proclaimed by Immanuel Velikovsky-- In the Light of New Archaeological Discoveries Eva Danelius Editor's Note: The illustrations in Fig. I supersede and correct the drawing of the ''Timna Temple" depicted on p. 19 of KRONOS 1, 3. III The literary sources used by Velikovsky contain memories of three peoples: Egyptians, Ethiopians, and Hebrews. The story of the "Queen of Sheba" is told in the Bible, by Josephus, and in Jewish and Ethiopian legends. Velikovsky stressed the fact that, according to all these sources, the queen came by sea.(65) In the Bible, as well as in the Jewish Antiquities of Josephus, the arrival of the queen is reported immediately after the information that Solomon had built a harbor at Ezion-geber-- i.e., at the head of the Gulf of Aqaba at ...
69. The Albrecht/Glueck-Aharoni/Rothenberg Confrontation [Catastrophism & Ancient History Journal $]
... archaeology," and to the claim that his views did leave at least a "kernel of truth" in Scripture, which was deemed untrue of the traditional views. 28 While these deductions by Aharoni seem unrelated to the question of dating the elusive pottery, it is actually not rationally possible to separate the two problems. This follows from the coincident placement of the entrance of the Israelites in the same period as that of the mining operations and use of this pottery and the necessary control of this territory at the time by the Egyptians. The ultimate question to be answered is whether this incident belongs to this era whatever may have been its nature. The answer here is clearly negative. Late Late Bronze does not provide the proper background for the Israelite entrance by either the conventional view or by that proposed by Aharoni. 29 This very difference of opinion, with both sides requiring more or less Scriptural compromise, points rather to a gross error in correlating Palestine archaeology with its own true history, and in turn points to gross error in correlating Palestine archaeology with ...
70. Saturn's Cosmos [The Saturn Myth] [Books]
... island of creation stood at the cosmic centre and that it was the residence of the creator himself, the central sun. Thus, while Osiris is the "motionless heart" in the Island of Fire, Atum, the stationary Heart of Heaven, is "the Sole One who is alone..., who made his heart in the Island of Fire." (4) In the following pages I shall attempt to show that Egyptian sources depict the band as something seenthe god's visible dwelling in heaven. Indeed, the Egyptians-- and all other ancient races-- were so preoccupied with the Saturnian band that they elaborated a vast symbolism presenting the same enclosure under wide-ranging mythical forms. Yet standard treatments of ancient myth and religion say little or nothing of the enclosure. And even less do writers on the subject seem aware that the pictograph of the enclosure sunis a straightforward portrait of Saturn and his legendary home. It is not for want of evidence that the experts have missed this connection. The only obstacle is the a priori world view of ...
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