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101. Chapter XIII: The Egyptian Heavens the Zodiacs of Dexderah [Dawn of Astronomy (Book)] [Books]
... think, is very improbable. Much is to be hoped from the study of the Babylonian records in relation to the Egyptian ones. This is a point I shall return to in the sequel. In observing stars nowadays, we use a transit circle which is carried round by the earth so as to pick up the stars in different circles round the axis of the earth prolonged, and by altering the inclination of the telescope of this instrument we can first get a circle of one decimation and then a circle of another. The Egyptians did not usually employ meridian observations. Did the Egyptians make star-maps? They certainly did, as we shall see. The first bit of solid information specially bearing upon ancient Egyptian constellations was gained at the temple of Denderah, a place which the traveller up the Nile reaches before he arrives so far as Thebes. Perhaps among the reasons why. so great attention was given to the so-called zodiacs of Denderah was the fact that one of them, having been rudely wrenched from its resting-place in the platform of one of the temples ...
102. The Search for Sethos [SIS C&C Workshop $]
... where he established a temple.(12) The references to the Assyrians and the Medes may reflect confusion with Seti I: perhaps we have here a garbled echo of Seti's claim to have campaigned in Naharin, east of the great bend of the Euphrates; (13) but a final verdict must await the historical context eventually settled on for Ramesses III. It is therefore plain that Sethosis in Manetho-Josephus is an amalgam of Seti I and Ramesses III. It is not difficult to imagine how this conflation took place, since the Egyptians did sometimes commemorate two great kings jointly. For example, Seti I is commemorated along with Thutmose III on scarabs.(14) It is therefore plausible to suggest that Seti I and Ramesses III were at one time jointly commemorated, with the result that their deeds and names became fused into one.(15) This conclusion regarding the identity of Sethosis does not depend on the 'Glasgow Chronology' for its validity. However, its application to the Sethos of Herodotus depends entirely on that chronological model, and so will be ...
103. Akhenaten - Heretic or Visionary [SIS Internet Digest $]
... From: SIS Internet Digest 2001:2 (Sep 2001) Home¦ Issue Contents Akhenaten- Heretic or Visionary John Davis Summary This task gave a brief summary, partly historical, of people's attempts to categorise Akhenaten in one of these two pigeonholes. There was some discussion of what 'heretic' might have meant to the ancient Egyptians, and to what extent he fitted the description. In the first half century or so after the discovery of the Amarna royal tomb there were highly enthusiastic and glowing descriptions of Akhenaten's accomplishments, but these have typically given way to a much more critical appraisal. Akhenaton and his wife Nefertiti on a limestone house stela, from the 18th Dynasty of the New Kingdom. The sun god Aten is center. Content John began by quoting the first lines of the poem "Ozymandias" by Shelley, relating to Ramesses II. However, although Akhenaten was almost entirely unknown in Shelley's time (with only a few reliefs found in out-of-the-way places) vastly more has now been written and speculated about him than about Ramesses in recent years. ...
104. Thera and the Exodus: the Cause and the Effect [SIS C&C Workshop $]
... it was elevated above sea level by tectonic processes [8. As if these reasons were not enough for discarding the Galanopoulos theory, the scientific principle that water always finds its own level will rule that when the water on the north side of the echrima is withdrawn, the water on the south side will rush through with great violence until the Mediterranean Sea and Lake Bardawil are once more at the same level. For the bed of the echrima passage to be dry enough for foot traffic to enable the Israelites to cross while the Egyptians were caught by the next wave crest sweeping back, the water has to be lowered on both sides, not withdrawn only from the Thera or north side. Vulcanologists have established a Volcanic Explosivity Index (VEI) scale running from 0 to 8 in order of increasing violence. Thera has been assigned an estimated value of 6, which compares with a VEI of 6 for the explosion of Krakatoa in 1883, and one of 7 for that of Tambora in 1815. No explosion has yet rated 8 [9. Therefore data ...
105. Chapter XXII: Star-Cults (Continued) -- Amen-t and Khons [Dawn of Astronomy (Book)] [Books]
... was also dedicated to Khons; but the temple B of Lepsius, nearly parallel to both, is sacred to Amen. It is seen at once that the main cult is the same, although the amount of detail shown in the reference is different-- we have the generic name of the triad in one case, the specific name of the member of the triad in the other. As this is the first time a setting star has been in question, it is well to point out that in this case the ancient Egyptians no longer typified the star as a goddess but as a god-- and, more than this, as a dying god; for Khons is always represented as a mummy-- the Osiris form. Egyptologists state that both Thoth and Khons were moon-gods. Perhaps the lunar attributes were assigned prior to the establishment of sun-worship. I shall show, subsequently, that the temples now being considered find their place in continuous series stretching back in the case of Amen-t to 3750 B.C., and in the case of Khons to ...
106. Saturn's Golden Age [Velikovsky Archive Website]
... Saturn is a name for the epoch before the Deluge; after the Deluge Saturn, dismembered, almost ceased to exist as a planetary body and when at length it was reconstituted it was fettered by rings, and was far from being the dominant celestial body that would behoove it as the supreme deity of the epoch. The ? Age of Kronos ? is so glorious an age that it is hardly thinkable to connect it with the period after the Deluge. The wailing for Adonis, Tammuz of the Babylonians, or Osiris of the Egyptians, deplored the end of its dominance, not the beginning of it. Then why was Saturn the supreme deity by whose name the great and glorious age before the Deluge was named? Because it removed Uranus from its role of chief deity, and to the onlookers on Earth, emasculated him? If the distances between the Earth and Saturn and Uranus were then what they are now, then such occurrences could scarcely be observable: Uranus is only faintly visible in the night sky over Mesopotamia in a most translucent night. Saturn ...
107. Probable Visibilities of Venus at the Time of the Supposed Spin Rate Acceleration of the Earth [SIS C&C Workshop $]
... versions of the troubled period surrounding the spin rate change can as yet be dated by any absolute means. Currently, the best hope of progress appears to lie in identification of the "noteworthy event" recorded by Varaha Mihira and shown as occurring 60 days before superior conjunction of Venus. A potentially viable speculation is that it marks the heliacal setting of Sirius, at the start of a period when Venus threatened possible interference with Orion (= Osiris), possibly even a clash between Sirius itself and Venus, which at least the Egyptians would have seen as potentially catastrophic (possibly upsetting the rising of the Nile and the ensuing growing season). If this hypothesis is verifiable, it offers a potential astronomical dating of the event (look for the years in which Sirius set heliacally 60 days before a superior conjunction of Venus- they recur once in every 240-year period, approximately). Discussion The moment of "heliacal setting", as recognized by the ancients, is unfortunately difficult to determine with any certainty. "Heliacal setting" occurs when Sirius, which ...
108. Velikovsky's Mythology, Accepting the Premise... [SIS C&C Workshop $]
... the planet Venus. Yet Velikovsky identifies Athene/Minerva, a goddess who is almost certainly correctly identified with Anath,(9) with the planet Venus.(10) A similar situation obtains in Egypt where Hathor, again a love goddess often shown with the head of a cow(11) (relating her to other fertility goddesses) and associated with the motif of the destruction of mankind,(12) is overlooked by Velikovsky in favour of Isis, a goddess who may well have been linked to Venus by the Egyptians. What is one looking for, given that identical goddesses such as Inanna and Aphrodite are not regarded by Velikovsky as both representing Venus?* If the myths relating to a particular goddess represent only astronomical events, then surely identical myth structures must signify identical goddess/planet relationships. If, on the other hand, there is evidence that goddesses from neighbouring geographical areas but associated with different myths were actually linked with Venus, then the premise must be regarded as unsound. [* The fault here does not lie with Velikovsky's ...
109. Alan Alford's The Phoenix Solution [SIS Internet Digest $]
... myths was lost. It became possible for Alford to recapture the ancient wisdom, as a result of the painstaking work of Egyptologists during the past two centuries, and the recent pioneering work of astronomer Dr Tom Van Flandern. Contents: Foreword by Michael Rice. Author's Introduction Part One: The Pyramid Puzzle. 1: BEYOND THE SPHINX: Introduction to Giza. Review of dating methodologies, comments on Lehner's 'Pyramids Carbon-dating Project', and a look at Bauval's theory on Pyramid shafts being aligned to certain stars. An overview of ancient Egyptians technologies. Insights into 'a lost race'. 2: SNEFERU'S SECRETS: About king Sneferu. Evidence that the Bent Pyramid was deliberately designed. Evidence suggesting the conversion of the Meidum step pyramid to a true pyramid could not have been carried out by Sneferu. The major differences between the Saqqara and Meidum step pyramids. Arguments against the orthodox 'pyramids-are-tombs' theory. Insights demonstrating that Sneferu aligned his two giant pyramids at Dahshur to the two giant pyramids at Giza. 3: PYRAMIDS AND TEMPLES OF GIZA: Features which make the ...
110. Sothic Dating Redux (Forum) [Kronos $]
... intercalate a sixth epagomenal day every four years. He seems to believe that this defect was not even noticed until "very gradually the civil year, with no leap-year, advanced in the seasons and lost its harmony with the lunar calendar". This line of speculation is certainly erroneous. The introduction of a radically new Civil Calendar was obviously a major (literally epochal) political act with crucial religious and social implications. It could never have occurred without extensive preliminary deliberation, preparation,... and calculation. But whether the Egyptians calculated the length of the year by observing the heliacal rising of Sirius or Canopus, the maximum declination of the Sun at rising or setting on a solstice, the minimum or maximum shadow cast by a tall object at solstitial noon, or any other method, the same reckoning would be inevitable after less than a decade of purposeful observation: a year of 365 and 1/4 days. Since Egyptian ignorance can thus be excluded as an explanatory factor, and since Parker's own insistence on parallel use of a lunar calendar proves ...
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